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10 Diseases Caused By Virus and Their Symptoms

In this 10 diseases caused by virus and their symptoms post we have briefly explained about chickenpox, flu (influenza), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS), human papillomavirus (HPV), measles. Read on to learn more about virus caused diseases!!

Virus Caused Diseases

Chickenpox

Pathogen:  Varicella zoster

Mode of transmission: Varicella virus caused diseases is highly contagious. The virus can be spread from person to person by direct contact, inhalation of aerosols from vesicular fluid of skin lesions of acute varicella or zoster, and possibly through infected respiratory secretions that also may be aerosolized.

Symptoms: An itchy rash is the most common symptom of chickenpox. The infection will have to be in your body for around seven to 21 days before the rash and other symptoms develop. The non-rash symptoms may last a few days and include: fever, headache, loss of appetite.

Prevention and treatment: Treatment is done with acyclovir (Sitavig, Zovirax). 
The chickenpox vaccine prevents chickenpox in 98 percent of people who receive the two recommended doses.

10 common Virus Disease

10 Diseases Caused By Virus and Their Symptoms, Image Source: VectorStock

Flu (influenza)

Pathogen:  Influenza A virus

Mode of transmission: Influenza virus caused diseases may be transmitted among humans in three ways: by direct contact with infected individuals; by contact with contaminated objects (called fomites, such as toys, doorknobs); and by inhalation of virus-laden aerosols.

Symptoms: At first, the flu may seem like a common cold with a runny nose, sneezing and sore throat. But colds usually develop slowly, whereas the flu tends to come on suddenly. And although a cold can be a bother, you usually feel much worse with the flu.

Prevention and treatment: Treatment includes the use of synthetic drug oseltamivir or inhaled zanamivir, It works by stopping the spread of the flu virus in the body. Influenza virus vaccine is used to prevent infection caused by influenza virus.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS)

Pathogen:  Human immunodeficiency virus

Mode of transmission: HIV virus caused diseases may be transmitted among humans through direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load Blood, Semen and pre-seminal fluid, Rectal fluids, Vaginal fluids, Breast milk.

Symptoms: The symptom includes fever, chills, rash, night sweats, muscle aches, sore throat, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes.

Prevention and treatment: HIV medicine is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). There is no effective cure for HIV. But with proper medical care, you can control HIV.
Only preventive measure is suggested to avoid the disease: a) Avoid positive blood donors, b) Avoid mother with AIDS against pregnancy, c) Do not use used syringe and needles, and d) Avoid unsafe sex.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Pathogen:  Human papillomavirus

Mode of transmission: HPV virus caused diseases may transmitted by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has the virus. It is most commonly spread during vaginal or anal sex.

Symptoms: In many cases, HPV causes no symptoms. When they do occur, the most common symptom is warts in the genital area. Signs of infection can appear weeks, months, or even years after the person has been infected with the virus.

Prevention and treatment: The use of barrier methods such as condoms can reduce, but not eliminate, transmission. Abstinence from sexual activity or monogamy with an uninfected partner is the best method to prevent infection.

Measles

Pathogen: Rubella virus.

Mode of transmission: The virus caused diseases is transmitted by direct contact with infectious droplets or by airborne spread when an infected person breathes, coughs, or sneezes.

Symptoms: Red spot, fever and swelling in the mouth, buccal cavity and in the mucous membrane of nose and coughing, etc. The virus enters the upper respiratory tract and localizes in the subcutaneous and tonsil, lymph node, etc.

Prevention and treatment: We can prevent by avoiding contact with the patient, vaccination for measles (MMR/MMRV) in a 9-month child.

Mumps

Pathogen: Mumps virus (Paramyxo virus).

Mode of transmission: The mumps virus caused diseases replicates in the upper respiratory tract and is transmitted person to person through direct contact with saliva or respiratory droplets of a person infected with mumps.

Symptoms: Virus infects the salivary glands of children, especially the parotid glands. The disease may begin on one side of the mouth but both glands affected in most cases.

Prevention and treatment: Vaccination is the best method to prevent the disease. Usually, MMR or MMRV use for vaccination.

Shingles

Pathogen: Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)

Mode of transmission: Direct contact with the fluid from your rash blisters can spread VZV to people who have never had chickenpox or never received the chickenpox vaccine.

Symptoms: Some of the most common symptoms of shingles include Constant dull, burning, or gnawing pain, or a sharp, stabbing pain, Skin rash, fluid-filled blisters.

Prevention and treatment: Two vaccines have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to prevent shingles: Zostavax and Shingrix. Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, and Famciclovir are available to treat shingles and shorten the length and severity of the illness.

Rabies

Pathogen: Rhabdovirus

Mode of transmission: Rabies virus caused diseases is transmitted through direct contact (such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth) with saliva or brain/nervous system tissue from an infected animal.

Symptoms: Virus firstly activates the cell of the spinal cord and brain and destroys it. The occurrence of fever, headache, swelling in muscles of the chest and neck, the patient suffers from pain while engulfing food, fear from water (water phobia).

Treatment: Administration of anti-rabies vaccine. L. Pasture developed a vaccine, which is necessary to take 14 doses. But now a day a new vaccine Rabipur is used to treat the infection, six doses of this vaccine are sufficient. Another rabies vaccine Merieus human diploid cell vaccine is used to treat the infection, only three doses of this vaccine are sufficient.

Poliomyelitis

Pathogen: Poliovirus.

Mode of transmission: It enters the body through the mouth and spreads through: Contact with the feces (poop) of an infected person. Droplets from a sneeze or cough of an infected person (less common).

Symptoms: Virus activates the grey matter of the spinal cord, cause a contraction in the neck virus to affect the motor nerve of the spinal cord, paralysis with headache & fever.

Prevention and treatment: Vaccination is a preventive measure, there are two types of vaccine is available for polio, one is killed vaccine and another is a live attenuated vaccine. The killed vaccine is administrated by injection while vaccine administrated orally.

Smallpox

Pathogen: Variola virus

Mode of transmission: Human-to-human transmission of variola virus occurs by inhalation of large, virus-containing airborne droplets of saliva from an infected person.

Symptoms: The first symptoms of smallpox include a high fever, fatigue, a headache, and a backache. After 2 to 3 days of illness, a flat, red rash appears. Over the next 2 to 3 weeks, the flat, red spots become firm and dome-shaped and fill with pus.

Prevention and treatment: Vaccination with replication competent smallpox vaccines (i.e., ACAM2000 and APSV) can prevent or lessen the severity of disease if given within 2 to 3 days of the initial exposure.

Further Readings

Reference

  1. https://www.narayanahealth.org/blog/viral-infections-types-treatment-and-prevention/
  2. https://www.healthline.com/health/viral-diseases