10 Major Biogeographical Regions of India

The following points highlight the 10 major biogeographical regions of India (Figure 1). The bio-geographical zones are: 1. Trans-Himalayas 2. Himalayas 3. Desert 4. Semi-Arid 5. Western Ghats 6. Deccan Peninsula 7. Gangetic Plain 8. North-East India 9. Islands 10. Coasts.

1. Trans-Himalayas

An extension of the Tibetan Plateau, Ladakh (J and K) and Lahaul Spiti (H.P.) contain high-altitude cold desert and make up 5.7% of the nation’s landmass.

2. Himalayas

The entire mountain range spanning from northwest to northeastern India, which makes up 7.2 percent of the nation’s landmass and is home to a variety of biotic provinces and biomes.

3. Desert

The extremely dry region west of the Aravalli mountain range, which includes both the Rajasthani sand desert and the salty desert of Gujarat. 6.9% of the nation’s total land area.

4. Semi-Arid

The zone between the desert and the Deccan plateau, including the Aravalli hill range. 15.6 per cent of the country’s landmass.

5. Western Ghats

The hill ranges and plains south of the Tapti river that run along the western coast line are home to a wide variety of biotic provinces and biomes. 5.8% of the nation’s total land area.

10 major biogeographical regions of india

Figure 1: 10 major biogeographical regions of India.

6. Deccan Peninsula

The largest of the zones, with a predominance of deciduous vegetation covering much of the southern and south-central plateau. 4.3% of the nation’s total land area.

7. Gangetic Plain

Defined by the Gangas river system, these plains are relatively homogenous. 11 per cent of the country’s landmass.

8. North-East India

The plains and non-Himalayan hill ranges of north eastern India, with a wide variation of vegetation. 5.2 per cent of the country’s landmass.

9. Islands

The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, with a highly diverse set of biomes. 0.03 per cent of the country’s landmass.

10. Coasts

A large coastline distributed both to the west and east, with distinct differences between the two; Lakshadeep Islands are included in this with the percent area being negligible.