3 Tools of Biotechnology

3 tools of biotechnology post summarizes about most commonly biotechnology tools and techniques such as; virus, plasmids, and restriction enzymes.

Recombinant DNA technology essentially manipulates an organism’s genetic code and alters the production of proteins. This synthesis provides the genetic code that allows for the placement and arrangement of amino acids within proteins. Scientists can alter the DNA’s nature and thus change the nature of any protein produced by it. Scientists can insert genes into an organism’s genome to induce it to make a different protein.

Research on microorganisms over the past half-century has helped make recombinant DNA technology possible. Escherichia Coli is a key microorganism for recombinant DNA research, and it is commonly known as E.coli. The genetics of E.coli are well-known. Its DNA has been isolated and modified to accept new genes. The DNA can then be moved into new E. coli cells, and the bacteria will start to produce the foreign genes-specific proteins. These altered bacteria are known as transformed.

3 Biotechnology Tools and Techniques

1. Viruses

DNA technology has also been made possible by knowledge about viruses. A virus is a fragment of nucleic acids surrounded by a protein coating. Viruses attack cells and then replicate within them, thereby destroying them. Scientists attach DNA to viruses to transport foreign DNA into cells, and they also connect it to the nucleic acids of the cells which is an important step biotechnology tools and techniques.

2. Plasmids

A common way to insert DNA into cells is to use plasmids an biotechnology tools and techniques. Plasmids are short loops of DNA found in the cytoplasm of bacterial cell cells, and it is easier to work with plasmids than with chromosomes. Therefore, plasmids are often the carriers or vectors of DNA. Plasmids can easily be isolated and recombined using foreign DNA before being inserted into cells, where they multiply as cells multiply.

3. Restriction Enzymes

3 Tools of Biotechnology

Biotechnology Tools and Techniques: Construction of a recombinant DNA molecule

The 1960s and 1970s saw a significant increase in interest in biotechnology and recombinant DNA. Restriction enzymes allow the opening of DNA molecules at a restricted point. Figure shows how a human DNA molecule can be opened at a specific site by the restriction enzyme EcoRI, and then the desired DNA fragment is extracted. Plasmid DNA is treated with the same enzyme and opened. The DNA fragment is spliced into the plasmid to produce the recombinant DNA molecule.

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