6 Major Harmful Activities of Bacteria

In this 6 major harmful activities of bacteria article we will briefly discuss about food poisoning, spoilage of food, destruction of domestic articles, reduction of soil fertility, denitrification, and biowar/bioterrorism.

6 Major Harmful Activities of Bacteria

Food poisoning

Food poisoning is caused by the presence of bacterial toxins in food. There is a chain reaction that causes nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhoea, and death. Bacteria that cause food poisoning include Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella enteritis, and Staphylococcus aureus, to name just a few.

Spoilage of food

Numerous types of saprotrophic bacteria are responsible for the fermentation of milk as well as the rotting of vegetables and meat.

Destruction of domestic articles

Spirochaete cytophaga cause cellulose degradation thereby destroying textiles, wooden articles and canvas.

Reduction of Soil fertility

Denitrifying bacteria like Thiobacillus denitrificans, Micrococcus denitrificans, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa turn nitrates and ammonia in the soil into free nitrogen, which makes the soil less fertile.


The denitrifying bacteria decompose nitrogen compound into free nitrogen.


Bioweapons, which are infectious agents that have been improved, are used a lot as effective weapons of bioterrorism. Microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics are being made in large numbers, such as Bacillus anthracis. When these microorganisms are released in strategic places, they cause anthrax infections that happen quickly. The spores of B. anthracis can be made and kept in a dry place, so they can be used or stored for many years. An attack with bioweapons, like antibiotic-resistant strains of mould, causes diseases like anthrax, plague, etc. to spread.