8 Major Harmful Effects of Fungi with Examples

In this harmful effects of fungi with examples article we discuss briefly explains about  harmful of fungi and its impacts.

Plant Diseases

These are triggered by a variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses, cell-worms, and fungi which is responsible for the greatest losses. Field crops, feed crops, fruit and nut harvests, vegetable harvests, drug plant harvests, and ornamental harvests are all destroyed.

Class Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Fungi Imperfecti all include pathogenic fungi. Except for mushrooms, no Myxomycetes species are known to infect plants with disease. The table that is provided includes a list of several significant illnesses.

Harmful Effects of Fungi

Figure 1: Harmful effects of fungi in plants

Fungi attack a lot of economically important plants and make it much harder for food grains to grow. In 1945, Phytophthora infestans’ late blight of potato destroyed millions of acres of potato crops and caused famine in Ireland. About a million people died and almost the same number moved to other continents. In the same way, the Bengal famine of 1942, which killed two million people, was caused by brown leaf spot disease, which was spread by Helminthosporium oryzae. This disease killed rice crops.

Human Diseases

Mycoses and tropical diseases of humans and animals are caused by a variety of fungi. The following table lists some of the more serious diseases that are thought to be caused by fungus.

Harmful Effects of Fungi

Figure 2: Harmful effects of fungi in humans

Timber Destruction

Several fungi including Polyporus, Chloros-plenium, Penicilium divaricatum, Fusarium negundi. Pori microspora and Lentinus lepidens cause decay in standing trees, decay in wood that has been cut down, sap stains, and decay in wood that has been used for different things.

Tropical Destruction

This term refers to the process by which various items, such as textiles, wool, tentage, binoculars, gunsights, cameras, leather goods, plastic articles, photographic films, paper and paper goods, radios, electronic goods, and so on, are degraded and rendered unusable by fungi.

Food Spoilage

Penicillium digitatum are the main things that cause food to go bad. These are non-symbiotic fungi that grow on things like bread, jam, pickles, meat, etc. For example, yeasts, Aspergillus otyzae, Penicillium digitatum, etc. can ruin food. Aspergillus repens, Mucor, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Oiduni lactis, and others can ruin dairy products. Fruits and fruit preparations are spoiled by Penicillium digitatum, Debr,omyces, Zygosacchwomyces etc. Vegetables are spoiled by Rhizopus nigricans and R. tritici.

Spoilage of Grains

Numerous fungus, especially certain Ascomycetes and Fungi imperfecti, severely damage food grains like wheat and maize and render them unfit for eating by humans and livestock. Many contaminated grains carry fungal hyphae that cause illnesses in crops spread by seeds. Pregnant women have abortion as a result of eating ergot-infected seeds or rye.

Mushroom poisoning

Deadly poisonous toadstools such as Amantia sp and others have invariably been mistaken for edible mushrooms and have taken a toll of life. Mushroom poisoning is known as mycetimus.

Fungal toxins

Some fungi produce toxic alkaloids and other toxic compounds. The parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea, which causes ergot of rye, has a powerful poison inside it. If you eat it, you will get gangrene and shake. LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide), a drug that causes hallucinations and makes people sleepy, can also be made from claviceps. A group of toxic chemicals called aflatoxins is also made by some fungi. Aspergillus flavus, an important fungus that makes toxins, often grows on ground nuts. When animals eat these nuts, they get sick.