In this harmful effects of fungi with examples article we discuss briefly explains about harmful of fungi and its impacts.
These are triggered by a variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses, cell-worms, and fungi which is responsible for the greatest losses. Field crops, feed crops, fruit and nut harvests, vegetable harvests, drug plant harvests, and ornamental harvests are all destroyed.
Class Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Fungi Imperfecti all include pathogenic fungi. Except for mushrooms, no Myxomycetes species are known to infect plants with disease. The table that is provided includes a list of several significant illnesses.
Figure 1: Harmful effects of fungi in plants
Fungi attack a lot of economically important plants and make it much harder for food grains to grow. In 1945, Phytophthora infestans’ late blight of potato destroyed millions of acres of potato crops and caused famine in Ireland. About a million people died and almost the same number moved to other continents. In the same way, the Bengal famine of 1942, which killed two million people, was caused by brown leaf spot disease, which was spread by Helminthosporium oryzae. This disease killed rice crops.
Figure 2: Harmful effects of fungi in humans
Several fungi including Polyporus, Chloros-plenium, Penicilium divaricatum, Fusarium negundi. Pori microspora and Lentinus lepidens cause decay in standing trees, decay in wood that has been cut down, sap stains, and decay in wood that has been used for different things.
This term refers to the process by which various items, such as textiles, wool, tentage, binoculars, gunsights, cameras, leather goods, plastic articles, photographic films, paper and paper goods, radios, electronic goods, and so on, are degraded and rendered unusable by fungi.
Penicillium digitatum are the main things that cause food to go bad. These are non-symbiotic fungi that grow on things like bread, jam, pickles, meat, etc. For example, yeasts, Aspergillus otyzae, Penicillium digitatum, etc. can ruin food. Aspergillus repens, Mucor, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Oiduni lactis, and others can ruin dairy products. Fruits and fruit preparations are spoiled by Penicillium digitatum, Debr,omyces, Zygosacchwomyces etc. Vegetables are spoiled by Rhizopus nigricans and R. tritici.
Spoilage of Grains
Numerous fungus, especially certain Ascomycetes and Fungi imperfecti, severely damage food grains like wheat and maize and render them unfit for eating by humans and livestock. Many contaminated grains carry fungal hyphae that cause illnesses in crops spread by seeds. Pregnant women have abortion as a result of eating ergot-infected seeds or rye.
Some fungi produce toxic alkaloids and other toxic compounds. The parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea, which causes ergot of rye, has a powerful poison inside it. If you eat it, you will get gangrene and shake. LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide), a drug that causes hallucinations and makes people sleepy, can also be made from claviceps. A group of toxic chemicals called aflatoxins is also made by some fungi. Aspergillus flavus, an important fungus that makes toxins, often grows on ground nuts. When animals eat these nuts, they get sick.