Slide Method of Blood Grouping

In this slide method of blood grouping post we have briefly explained about principle, requirements, reagents, procedure, and observation on blood grouping slide.

Slide Method of Blood Grouping

Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets make up a human blood corpuscle. When it comes to transportation, protection, and regulation, all of these blood cells perform a critical function.

The presence or lack of antigens and antibodies on the surface of our red blood cells, also known as Erythrocytes, determines our blood group. The consequences of receiving a transfusion with the wrong blood type are typically fatal.

Blood groups A, B, AB, and O is the four primary blood groups. Karl Landsteiner, an Austrian scientist and immunologist, discovered the blood grouping system in the year 1901.

Objectives

The basic purpose of conducting this blood grouping slide experiment is to understand the basic concept of the different ABO blood group system and with the help of this blood grouping slide method you get to know our blood group and type.

Principle

The ABO and Rh blood grouping system is based on agglutination reaction. When red blood cells carrying one or both the antigens are exposed to the corresponding antibodies they interact with each other to form visible agglutination or clumping. 

The ABO blood group antigens are O-linked glycoproteins in which the terminal sugar residues exposed at the cell surface of the red blood cells determine whether the antigen is A or B. 

Blood group A individuals have A antigens on RBCs and anti-B antibodies in serum. Similarly, blood group B individuals have B antigens on RBCs and anti-A antibodies in serum. 

Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on RBCs and neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies in serum. 

Whereas, blood group O individuals have neither A antigens nor B antigens, but possess both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in serum. The Rh antigens are transmembrane proteins in which the loops exposed on the surface of red blood cells interact with the corresponding antibodies.

Materials

1. Toothpicks

2. Blood sample

3. Alcohol Swabs

4. Lancet

5. Blood grouping slide

6. Sterile cotton balls

Antibodies

1. Anti-A

2. Anti-B

3. Anti-D

Procedure

1. After cleaning the blood grouping slide, pick a glass side and draw three circles on it. Remove the Monoclonal Antibodies (MAB) kit from the box. Now, using a dropper, add the Anti-A, Anti-B, and Anti-D to the first, second, and third circles, in the blood grouping slide.

2. Now use the alcohol swabs to wash the ring finger and touch lightly towards the fingertip, where the blood sample will be taken on blood grouping slide.

3. With the lancet, puncture the ring fingertip and wipe away the first drop of blood. Allow the blood to fall on the three circles of the glass blood grouping slide as it starts to come out by gently pressing the fingertip on them.

4. We must apply pressure on the pricked part in order to stop the blood flow. Use the cotton ball if required. Mix the blood sample gently with the help of a toothpick and wait for a minute to observe the result.

Observation

As mentioned above, there are four major blood groups and eight different blood types, collectively called the ABO Blood Group System. The groups are known to be based on the presence or absence of two specific antigens and antibodies– A and B:

Group A- Antigen A and Antibody B.

Group B- Antigen B and Antibody A.

Group AB- Antigen A and B both and no Antibodies

Group O- No Antigens and both A and B Antibodies.

ABO Blood Grouping
ABO Blood Grouping

Slide Method of Blood Grouping: Blood grouping slide Results

Other than this, there is also a third kind of antigen that is termed as the Rh factor. Based on the presence or absence of this antigen (Rh factor), the four blood groups are classified into eight different blood types:

A positive – Presence of Rh+

A negative – Presence of Rh-

B positive – Presence of Rh+

B negative – Presence of Rh-

AB positive – Presence of Rh+

AB negative – Presence of Rh-

O positive – Presence of Rh+

O negative – Presence of Rh- 

Further Readings

Reference

  1. http://www.surendranathcollege.org/new/upload/ABOblood
  2. https://www.brainkart.com/article/Determination-of-Blood-Grouping_26750/
  3. https://inlarn.com/top-python-interview-questions