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Air Pollution Effects and Control Measures

In this air pollution effects and control measures post we have briefly explained about air pollution, what is air pollution?, types of air pollution on environment, major air pollutants, and causes of air pollution on environment.

Air Pollution On Environment

Air pollution on environment is define as the composition of air is disturbed due to presence of gas, smoke, dust, chemical particulate etc., which are injurious to human being, plant and animal. Pollution can occur due to both natural (such as volcanic eruptions) and man-made causes. However, man-made factors are now causing more pollution than natural ones. The growing number of vehicles, as well as industrial wastes in the form of air or water, all contributes to air pollution on environment in some way.

What is Air Pollution On Environment

According to the definition of air pollution on environment, it occurs when any physical, chemical, or biological change occurs in the air and contaminates it. Air pollution on environment can be caused by a variety of factors, including poisonous or harmful gases, smoke, fog, smog, dust, and so on. Air pollution on environment has an impact on both plants and animals.

Air Pollution

Air Pollution Effects and Control Measures; Image Source: www.lalpathlabs.com

Types of Air pollution On Environment

Primary pollutant: Pollutants that are emitted directly from human or natural activities are classified as primary pollutant. CO2, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, hydrocarbons, and so on.

Secondary pollutant: When primary pollutants react with atmospheric moisture content, a new category of pollutants known as secondary pollutant is formed. Carbonic acid, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, and other acids are examples.

Major Air pollutants

Carbon dioxide: the concentration of CO2 gas increase in atmosphere due to emission from vehicles, burning of fossil fuel, emission from volcano, industries, agricultural activity etc. it increase greenhouse effect which causes global warming and climate change.

Carbon monoxide: carbon monoxide gas releases after incomplete combustion of fossil fuel or other product. The source of CO is vehicle emission, burning of coal, biomass combustion etc. CO causes headache, dizziness, heart failure (in blood CO combines with oxygen which reduced the affinity of haemoglobin towards oxygen), etc.

Sulphur dioxide: SO2 releases from oil refineries, volcanic eruption, and chemical industries etc. sulphur dioxide react with moisture to form secondary pollutant which causes eye irritation. It can also cause allergic reaction and asthma.

Lead: tetra ethyl lead used as anti-knocking agents in petrol for smooth function vehicle. Lead particle coming out from the exhaust of vehicle and mixed with air. It causes injurious effect on kidney and liver. It also lowers down the intelligence power in children.

Nitrogen oxide: it release from vehicle exhausts, volcanic eruption, lighting etc. like SO2, it also react with moisture content present in atmosphere and causes eye irritation.

Causes of Air Pollution On Environment

Fossil Fuels: The combustion of fossil fuels emits a large amount of sulphur dioxide. Carbon monoxide released by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels also results in air pollution on environment.

Automobiles: Vehicles such as jeeps, trucks, cars, buses, and other vehicles generate gases that contaminate the environment. These are the primary sources of greenhouse gases, as well as the causes of sickness in individuals.

Agricultural Activities: One of the most dangerous chemicals released during agricultural activity is ammonia. Insecticides, pesticides, and fertilisers pollute the atmosphere by releasing toxic chemicals.

Factories and Industries: Carbon monoxide, organic molecules, hydrocarbons, and chemicals are mostly produced in factories and industries. These are released into the atmosphere, causing it to deteriorate in quality.

Mining Activities: The minerals beneath the earth’s surface are retrieved utilising enormous pieces of equipment during the mining operation. The dust and chemicals emitted during the operation not only contaminate the air, but they also harm the employees’ and local residents’ health.

Domestic Sources: Toxic chemicals are emitted into the air by household cleaning products and paints. The odour emanating from freshly painted walls is due to the chemicals inherent in the paints. It not only pollutes the air but also affects breathing.

Effects of Air Pollution On Environment

Global Warming: The gaseous composition of the air is unbalanced as a result of greenhouse gas emissions. The earth’s temperature has risen as a result of this. Global warming is the term for the increase in the earth’s temperature. Glaciers have melted and sea levels have risen as a result of this. Many parts of the island are submerged.

Diseases: Humans have developed a variety of respiratory and cardiovascular ailments as a result of air pollution on environment. Lung cancer has been more common during the previous few decades. Pneumonia and asthma are more common in children who live near polluted environments. Every year, a large number of people die as a result of the direct or indirect impacts of air pollution on environment.

Acid Rain: The combustion of fossil fuels emits hazardous gases into the atmosphere, such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. When water droplets come into contact with these contaminants, they become acidic and fall as acid rain, causing harm to people, animals, and plants.

Ozone Layer Depletion: The main source of ozone layer depletion is the emission of chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and hydro chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. The ozone layer’s depletion does not protect people from the sun’s harmful UV rays, which cause skin ailments and eye difficulties.

Effect on Animals: Pollutants in the air settle in bodies of water, affecting aquatic life. Pollution also forces animals to leave their natural habitat and relocate. This causes them to become stray and has resulted in the extinction of several animal species.

Air Pollution On Environment Control

Avoid Using Vehicles: Taking public transportation will reduce CO emissions into the atmosphere. The availability of carpools can assist reduce the number of automobiles on the road, which cuts pollution. To go around, I prefer to walk or ride my bike to various locations.

Energy Conservation: At the workplace and at home, use energy-efficient electrical devices. When your lights are not in use, you can turn them off. Electrical equipment should be checked on a regular basis to ensure that conservation is not harmed.

Use of Clean Energy Resources: Solar, wind, and geothermal energy minimise air pollution on environment to a greater extent. Several countries, notably India, have adopted the utilisation of these resources as a means of reducing pollution.

Further Readings

Reference

  1. https://www.lalpathlabs.com/blog/health-effects-of-air-pollution/
  2. https://www.nrdc.org/stories/air-pollution-everything-you-need-know
  3. https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/air-pollution/index.cfm