Bio-Geographical Regions in India (Explained With Diagram)

This article briefly discuss about the bio-geographical regions in India (with diagram).

India is responsible for approximately 8.1 percent of the world’s total species diversity despite having only 2.4 percent of the world’s land area. As a result, India is considered to be one of the world’s 12 countries with the greatest biodiversity. There are ten distinct biogeographic regions across the country. The country is home to an exceptionally high level of biodiversity, which has been fostered in part by the presence of a wide variety of ecological habitats, including forests, grasslands, wetland ecosystems, coastal and marine ecosystems, and desert ecosystems.

The Indian subcontinent is home to a significant number of plant and animal species that are found nowhere else on the planet. The varied climates, topographies, and elevations throughout the region all contribute to the high level of biodiversity found here. These range from the snow-capped mountains of the Himalayas to the cold deserts of Ladakh, and from the warm coasts of peninsular India to the humid tropical Western Ghats.

The nation is one of the primary centres of origin for cultivated plants and domesticated animals, ranking among the top 12 such centres worldwide. It is believed to be the birthplace of 114 breeds of domesticated animals and 167 important cultivated plant species, including cereals, millets, fruits, condiments, vegetables, pulses, fibre crops, and oilseeds. In addition, it is home to a variety of fruits and vegetables. Rice, sugarcane, jute, mango, and a variety of plants used for medicinal and aromatic purposes are among the crops that are cultivated.

Bio-Geographical Regions in India

Figure 1: Bio-Geographical Regions in India.

There have been more than 75,000 species of animals and 45,000 species of plants that have been described. There are over 100,000 unidentified species of plants and over 300,000 unidentified species of animals still waiting to be found. There are approximately 4,900 species of flowering plants that are only found in this country.

The North-East region of India, the Western Ghats, the Northwest Himalayas, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are home to a disproportionate number of these. According to some estimates, India is home to 62 percent of the world’s known species of amphibians, the vast majority of which can be found in the Western Ghats. The Western Ghats in peninsular India and the North-East region are home to an incredible variety of species and are a biological treasure trove.

The length of India’s coastline is approximately 7,000 kilometres, and along it can be found a rich diversity of marine life, including seaweeds, fish, crustaceans, molluscs, corals, reptiles, and mammals.

Local knowledge systems and practises that are deeply ingrained in the Indian ethos provide the foundation for India’s efforts to preserve its biological resources and to make their use more environmentally responsible. The majority of the country’s alternative medical practises, such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy, are founded on the utilisation of plant-based constituents as their primary source of active ingredients. In addition, the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries make use of a wide variety of herbal preparations, many of which contain plant-based raw materials.

On the other hand, India as a country faces a number of challenges, some of which include an excessively high population and an increasing demand for land, energy, and water supply. As a result of excessive harvesting, many different kinds of materials are in short supply, and the survival of many animal species hangs in the balance.