In this animal cell culture media composition post we have briefly explained about what is cell culture media?, media composition for animal cell culture, types of cell culture media, and selection of cell culture media depends on?.
One of the most important procedures in the bio sciences is cell culture. It refers to the process of removing cells, tissues, or organs from an animal or plant and placing them in an artificial environment that promotes their survival and/or multiplication. Controlled temperature, a substrate for cell attachment, and an adequate growth medium and incubator that maintains proper pH and osmolality are the basic environmental needs for cells to develop properly.
What is Cell culture Media?
The selection of proper growth media for in vitro cultivation is the most significant and vital phase in cell culture. A growth medium, also known as a culture medium, is a liquid or gel that helps bacteria, cells, or miniature plants develop. In general, cell culture mediums contain an adequate amount of energy as well as chemicals that regulate the cell cycle. A normal culture media contains amino acids, vitamins, inorganic salts, glucose, and serum, which contains growth factors, hormones, and attachment factors. Aside from providing nutrients, the medium also aids in maintaining pH and osmolality.
Animal cell culture media composition
Culture Media composition
Cell culture medium is made up of a mix of chemicals and nutrients that promote cellular growth. The following are common components of cell culture media:
Amino acids: Amino acids, the building blocks of protein, are present in all cell growth mediums. To increase cell viability and proliferation, both essential and non-essential amino acids can be employed.
Vitamins: Vitamins are included to aid cellular multiplication and growth. Many vitamins are obtained from serum in serum-containing media; however, vitamins must be added to serum-free media.
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are a type of sugar that gives energy to living cells. Although glucose is the most common carbohydrate, other carbohydrates such as galactose, fructose, and maltose are also accessible.
Inorganic salts: Inorganic salts are required for the regulation of membrane potential and osmolality.
Trace elements: For cells to grow, they require elements such as iron, potassium, magnesium, and zinc.
Serum: Growth factors and inhibitors, hormones, protease inhibitors, chelators, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, trace elements, minerals, and other substances required for cellular growth are all found in serum. The most frequent type of serum utilised is bovine serum.
Buffering systems: pH regulation is essential for optimal culture conditions, and it is usually accomplished via one of two buffering systems:
Hormones: Hormones can be administered to cells to alter their function, growth, and reproduction.
Supplements: To adapt to the cell type and study purpose, supplements such as hormones, proteolytic enzymes, and trace elements are occasionally added to cell culture media.
Antibiotics: Antibiotics are used in cell culture mediums to prevent the growth of fungi and bacteria. Antibiotics work best in serum media because proteins bind a portion of the antibiotic dose. Cells grown in serum-free media, on the other hand, are more susceptible to antibiotic toxicity.
Types of Cell Culture Media
Animal cells can be cultivated in either a wholly natural medium or a synthetic/artificial media containing some natural components.
a. Natural media
Natural media composition for animal cell culture are made up entirely of biological fluids that occur naturally. Natural media are ideal for a wide range of animal cell culture applications. Natural media has a significant disadvantage in terms of repeatability, which is owing to a lack of knowledge about the specific composition of these natural media.
b. Synthetic media
Artificial or synthetic media composition for animal cell culture are prepared by adding nutrients (both organic and inorganic), vitamins, salts, O2 and CO2 gas phases, serum proteins, carbohydrates, cofactors. Different artificial media have been devised to serve one or more of the following purposes: 1) immediate survival (a balanced salt solution, with specific pH and osmotic pressure); 2) prolonged survival (a balanced salt solution supplemented with various formulations of organic compounds and/or serum); 3) indefinite growth; 4) specialized functions.
Foetal Bovine Serum: The most common addition in animal cell culture media is foetal bovine serum. It’s utilised as a low-cost additive to help create the best culture media possible. Serum transports labile or water-insoluble nutrients, hormones and growth factors, protease inhibitors, and binds and neutralises hazardous moieties as carriers or chelators.
Serum free media: Serum free media (SFM) provides more stability than serum-containing media, allowing researchers to sustain cellular development and proliferation without using serum.
Chemically media: These media are made up of contamination-free, ultra-pure inorganic and organic materials, as well as pure protein additions such as growth factors. With the inclusion of vitamins, cholesterol, particular amino acids, and fatty acids, their contents are synthesised in bacteria or yeast through genetic engineering.
Protein free media: Protein-free media contain solely non-protein ingredients and do not contain any protein. Protein-free media promotes superior cell growth and protein expression, as well as downstream purification of any produced product, when compared to serum-supplemented medium. Protein supplementation is supplied when necessary in formulations such as MEM and RPMI-1640.
Selection of Culture Media
The most crucial step is to decide which cell culture media to utilise. Finding the right commercial media might be difficult with so many options available. Begin by doing some study on the cell line you’ll be employing to see which culture media are recommended. You can then pick a handful and experiment with them to see which ones perform best. Here are some things to think about.
Powdered medium: Powdered media composition for animal cell culture are the least expensive but must be sterilized and prepared by the researcher.
Concentrated medium: Concentrated media composition for animal cell culture only need to be diluted by the researcher.
Working solution: Working solutions are the easiest type of media. They are designed to be used without any manipulation by the researcher.
Cell culture media selection is critical and has a major impact on the success of cell culture studies. The media chosen is determined by the type of cells to be grown, as well as the goal of the culture and the laboratory’s resources. Because different cell types have very different development requirements, the best media for each cell type must be discovered experimentally. Starting with MEM for adherent cells and RPMI-1640 for suspension cells is always a smart idea.