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Cell Organization and Cellular Level of Organization

It’s common knowledge that all living things use a variety of cell types to construct their bodies. Even while there may be some variances between various cell types, there are also some similarities. Now, one of these similarities is often how the cells are put together, and that’s what we’re going to learn about cell organization and cellular level of organization.

What is Cellular Organization

Reading about the many types of cells that make up living beings, you may have realised that certain concepts are universally applicable. These similarities or features are often the cell membrane, cytoplasm, RNA, DNA, and ribosomes that are present in the bodies of the organisms. There might also be a mention of eukaryotic cells, which have a lot of different organelles and structures. No matter what kind of cell it is, all cells have some things in common. These are the cytoplasm, the cell membrane, the ribosomes, and the DNA and RNA inside the cell. There are a lot of different structures and organelles in eukaryotic cells.

Cell Organization and Cellular Level of Organization

Figure 1: Cell organization and cellular level of organization of plant and animal cell.

Levels of Cellular Organization

1. Cell Membrane

The cell’s membrane acts as a semipermeable barrier, allowing certain molecules to pass through while containing most of the cell’s naturally occurring substances. Electron microscopic inspections of the cell membranes are responsible for the growth of the bilayer model of lipids.

2. Cell Walls

Some organisms, including mammals and protists with some animal traits, do not have a cell wall. Cell walls of bacteria are made of the chemical peptidoglycan. The fundamental component of a plant’s cell wall is cellulose, a polysaccharide that is indigestible (at least to humans) its natural form. Lignin and other compounds are embedded in the secondary cell walls of certain plant cells.

3. Nucleus

Nuclei are unique to cells that are classified as eukaryotic. Many nucleic acids, including RNA and DNA, are synthesised there. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) is located exclusively in the nucleus of every cell in the body, with the exception of plastid and mitochondrial DNA. The DNA sequence is used as a model to shape RNA (ribonucleic acid) in the nucleus. RNA moves out into the cytoplasm, where it helps put proteins together. The ribosomes are made in the nucleolus, which is a part of the nucleus.

4. Vacuoles and vesicles

Vacuoles are single-membrane organelles found inside of cells. Specifically, the solitary membrane in plant cells is called a tonoplast. Vacuoles are used for storage by a wide variety of organisms. Vesicles, which are smaller than vacuoles, transport substances inside and between cells.

5. Ribosomes

Ribosomes are the spots of protein formation. They are not bounded by the membrane and therefore are found equally in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Eukaryotic cells have slightly larger ribosomes than prokaryotic cells. The ribosome is composed of a minor and a major subunit. The ribosome is composed of rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and approximately 50 structural proteins.

6. Endoplasmic reticulum

It is a network of membranes that work together to help with the transport and production of proteins. Rough ER (Rough endoplasmic reticulum) gets its name from the rough surface it has because it contains many ribosomes. The rough ER connects to the nuclear envelope, which is where the messenger RNA (mRNA), which is the blueprint for proteins, starts its journey to the ribosomes. Ribosomes are not in Smooth ER.

7. Golgi Apparatus

Golgi Complexes can be defined as compressed stacks consisting of membrane-bound sacs or pouches. Golgi has the function of packaging and modification of the vesicles.

8. Mitochondria

Since they contain their own DNA, mitochondria are sometimes referred to as the “powerhouse” of the cell. Mitochondria are tasked with generating ATP and releasing that energy to the cell.

Cellular organization is the name for all of the parts that make up a cell. Every part of a cell has a specific and important job to do. These parts, which are called organelles, each have their own job to do.

Living things have to do things to stay alive. Different parts of the body do jobs to keep the whole thing going. All of the animal’s parts work together to keep it alive.