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Cells and Their Organelles Functions

The structure of a cell is made up of different parts that each do a very important job for the life cycle. These components incorporate cell divider (or) cell membrane, cell membrane, cytoplasm, core (or) nucleus, and cell organelles. Read on to find out a lot about cells and their organelles functions. There are two main types of cells: eukaryotic and prokaryotic.

Prokaryotic cell

Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus. A few prokaryotes, such as bacteria, contain a region within the cell in which the genetic material is blatantly suspended. The size of active cells ranges from 0.1 to 0.5 micrometres. DNA or RNA will constitute the inheritable material. The majority of prokaryotes duplicate via parallel rending, a form of biological phenomenon propagation. In addition, they are known to employ formation – a strategy that is frequently equated with sexual reproduction.

Eukaryotic cell

A real core represents organism cells. In terms of activity, the cell dimensions range from 10 to 100 µm. Plants, organisms, protozoans, and creatures are all included in this broad category. The plasma layer is in charge of monitoring the transport of nutrients and electrolytes throughout the cells. It’s in charge of cell-to-cell communication. They recreate physically and abiogenetically. Plant and animal cells have a few distinguishing characteristics. Plant cells, for example, have plastids, focal vacuoles, and various plastids, whereas animal cells do not.

Cell Organelles 

Cell organelles refer to the parts inside a cell. Both membrane-bound and non-membrane-bound organelles are present within cells, and each has its own unique structure and set of responsibilities. They work together effectively, allowing the cell to carry out its normal functions. Some play a role in giving a cell its form and structure, while others aid in the cell’s movement and proliferation. Depending on whether or not they have a membrane, organelles can be placed in one of three groups.

  1. Organelles without membrane: The Cell wall, Ribosomes, and Cytoskeleton are non-membrane-bound cell organelles. They are present both in the prokaryotic cell and the eukaryotic cell.
  2. Single membrane-bound organelles: Vacuole, Lysosome, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum are single membrane-bound organelles present only in a eukaryotic cell.
  3. Double membrane-bound organelles: Nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast are double membrane-bound organelles present only in a eukaryotic cell.
Cells and Their Organelles Functions

Figure 1: Cells and Their Organelles Functions. Source: www.embibe.com

Cells and Their Organelles Functions

1. Plasma Membrane

The plasma membrane, sometimes known as the cytoplasmic membrane, is another name for the plasma film. It is a membrane composed of a lipid bilayer and proteins that has a unique pore structure. The plasma film comes in both plant cells and animal cells. Because of the layer’s particular permeability, the cell may be tailored to accommodate a wide range of applications by allowing different substances to move freely within it. The cell layer serves the cell by providing structural integrity and protecting its innermost components during the life of the organism.

2. Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is found in both plant and animal cells. They are liquid and jelly-like substances occupying all the region between the cell wall and nucleus. They are mostly made of water mixed with natural and inorganic substances. The living substance is one of the basic parts of the cell, which is where all the organelles are located. These organelles of a cell are where most of the chemical reactions in a cell take place. They contain proteins, which are mainly responsible for most of the metabolic processes that take place in a cell.

3. Nucleus (or) core

The nucleus is a double-membraned organelle unique to eukaryotic cells. The nucleus is a dark, spherical organelle that is surrounded by a nuclear membrane. It divides the cytoplasm from the nucleus and has a similar structure to a cell membrane. A nucleolus is a small spherical structure. But that’s not all; the nucleus is also where you’ll locate your chromosomes.

4. Endoplasmic Reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum might be a network of fluid-filled membranous tubes. They are known as the cell’s transport system because they are involved in the transfer of materials throughout the cell. There are unit 2 distinctive sorts of Endoplasmic Reticulum:

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: They’re created out of cisternae, tubules, and vesicles, that area unit half-track down at some stage in the cell and area unit related to macromolecule fabricate.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: They’re the capability cell organ, connected with the creation of lipids, steroids, and what is more accountable for detoxifying the cell.

5. Mitochondria

Mitochondria are the “Powerhouse of the cell,” the double-membraned organelles present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells that generate energy by oxidising cellular substrates such as glucose and fatty acids.

6. Plastids

A plastid is a double-membrane organelle found in plant and algal cells. These plastids are vital to the processes of both food production and food storage. Pigments used in photosynthesis are the main component of plastids. Pigments provide a functional role in cells by altering their colour. Below are a number of the important plastids and their function

Leucoplasts: Leucoplasts can be found in non-photosynthetic tissues of plants which function as the storehouse of protein, lipid, and starch.

Chromoplasts: The chromoplasts incorporate fat-solvent, antioxidant shades like xanthophylls, carotene, and so forth that provide the plants with their trademark tone yellow, orange, red, and so on.

Chloroplasts: Chloroplasts are a stretched organelle encased by phospholipid film. The chloroplast is formed sort of a disc and therefore the stroma is the fluid within the chloroplast that comprises a circular DNA.

7. Ribosomes

Ribosomes are macro-molecular devices essential for protein synthesis in living organisms. For this reason, ribosomes have another name: cellular protein factories. To put it simply, ribosomes are made up of two parts: ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. Protein synthesis is essential to the survival of all live cells, and this is accomplished mostly by the cell’s ribosomes.

8. Golgi complex

The Golgi Apparatus, sometimes called the Golgi body, is an organelle common to all eukaryotic cells that plays a role in transporting newly generated macromolecules to their respective destinations.

9. Microbodies

Microbodies are tiny organelles that look like tiny sacs. They can be found in both plant and animal cells. They have different chemicals and proteins in them, which can be seen with a microscope.

10. Cytoskeleton

From the nucleus to the cell wall, the cytoplasm is filled with an intricate web of protein filaments. It is present in every kind of living cell, but especially eukaryotic ones. Different proteins make up the cytoskeleton network, which may rapidly split or deconstruct depending on the needs of the cell. The contractile concept of the fibres aids in motility during cytokinesis, and their vital functions include providing the shape and mechanical protection from the cell against deformation.

11. Cilia and Flagella

Cilia are hair-like projections, small structures, present outside the cell membrane and work like oars to either move the cell or the ECF. Flagella are somewhat larger and are accountable for cell locomotion. The eukaryotic flagellum varies from its prokaryotic partner structurally.

12. Centrosomes

The cytoplasm organ consists of two structures known as centrioles that are unremarkable opposites. Each organelle is composed of nine fringe fibrils of tubulin protein, therefore the fibre may be a collection of interconnected trios. The central purpose connects with the perimeter fibrils by protein-based spread talked. The centrioles constitute the base of cilia and flagella and produce shaft filaments throughout the whole biological process.

13. Vacuoles

Vacuoles are usually thought of as storage bubbles with strange shapes that can be found inside cells. They are organelles with liquid inside and a thin film around them. The food or a mix of nutrients that a cell might need to live are kept in the vacuole. It also has a place to store waste. The waste is finally thrown away by vacuoles. So, the rest of the cell is protected from getting sick. The vacuoles in animal and plant cells are different in size and number. Compared to animals, plant cells have larger vacuoles.


FAQs on Cells and Their Organelles Functions

The plasma film is what is on the outside of a eukaryotic cell. This film keeps a cell separate and safe from its surrounding environment. It is mostly made of a double layer of proteins and lipids, which are like fats.

The mitochondria are a kind of cellular organelle that are often referred to as “the powerhouse of the cell” due to their role in cellular respiration and the production of ATP.

Each plant cell has two types of plastids called chloroplasts and chromplasts. Colors of green in leaves, stems, and other plant parts are produced by chloroplasts. All the vibrant colours you see in fruits, vegetables, flowers, and other colourful plant parts come from chromoplasts.

The suicide sacks, or lysosomes, are responsible for the digestion of all unwanted materials and cellular debris, thus the name.



Cell membrane

Provides shape, protects the inner organelles of the cell and acts as a selectively permeable membrane.


It plays a major role in organizing the microtubule and cell division.


Sites of photosynthesis.


Responsible for the cell’s metabolic activities.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Forms the skeletal framework of the cell, involved in the detoxification, production of lipids and proteins.

Golgi apparatus

It is mainly involved in secretion and intracellular transport.


Helps in the digestion and removes wastes and digests dead and damaged cells. Therefore, it is also called as the “suicidal bags”.


The main site of cellular respiration and also involved in storing energy in the form of ATP molecules.


Controls the activity of the cell, helps in cell division and controls the hereditary characters.


Involved in the metabolism of lipids and catabolism of long-chain fatty acids.


Helps in the process of photosynthesis and pollination, imparts colour to leaves, flowers, fruits and stores starch, proteins and fats.


Involved in the synthesis of proteins.


Provide shape and rigidity to the plant cell and help in digestion, excretion, and storage of substances.