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Derivatives of Monosaccharide in Human Body

    In this derivatives of monosaccharide in human body post we have briefly explained about derivatives of monosaccharides and its importance of derivatives of monosaccharides in human body.

    Derivatives of Monosaccharides are found in the systems, which include sugar phosphate, deoxy and amino sugars, sugar alcohol, and sugar phosphate, deoxy and amino sugar, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids. Phosphate esters: When derivatives of monosaccharides are used as fuel they are metabolized as phosphate esters.

    Derivatives of Monosaccharide in Human Body

    Derivatives of Monosaccharides

    Derivatives of Monosaccharides in Human Body

    Oxidation

    Oxidation of aldehyde or primary alcohol group in monosaccharide results in sugar acids. Cluconic acid is produced from glucose by oxidation of aldehyde (C1 group) whereas glucuronic acid is formed when primary alcohol group (C6) is oxidized.

    Sugar alcohols

    They are produced by reduction of aldoses or ketoses. For instance, sorbitol is formed from glucose and mannitol from mannose.

    Alditols

    The monosaccharides, on reduction, yield polyhydroxy alcohols, known as alditols. Ribitol is a constituent of flavin coenzymes; glycerol and myo-inositol are components of lipids. Xylitol is a sweetener used in sugarless gums and candies.

    Derivatives of Monosaccharides

    Amino sugars

    When one or more hydroxyl groups of the monosaccharides are replaced by amino groups, the products formed are amino sugars e.g. D-glucosamine, D-galactosamine. They are present as constituents of heteropolysaccharide.

    The amino groups of amino sugars are sometimes acetylated e.g. N-acetyl D-glucosamrne. N-Acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) is a derivative of N-acetylmannose and pyruvic acid. It is an important constituent of glycoproteins and glycolipids. The term sialic acid is used to include NANA and its other derivatives. Certain antibiotics contain amino sugars which may be involved in the antibiotic activity e.g. erythromycin.

    Deoxysugars

    These are the sugars that contain one oxygen less than that present in the parent molecule. The groups -CHOH and -CH2OH become -CH2 and -CH3 due to the absence of oxygen. D-2-Deoxyribose is the most important deoxysugar since it is a structural constituent of DNA (in contrast to D-ribose in RNA).

    L-Ascorbic acid

    This is a water-soluble vitamin, the structure of which closely resembles that of a monosaccharide.

    We hope derivatives of monosaccharides article helps you understand derivatives of monosaccharides and its importance of derivatives of monosaccharides in human body.

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