The major difference between DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling is DNA fingerprinting is a molecular genetic technique for identifying people based on their unique DNA patterns, whereas DNA profiling is a forensic tool used in criminal investigations and paternity testing.
DNA fingerprinting is a method that produces a pattern that is specific to an individual by simultaneously detecting a large number of minisatellites found in the genome, While STRs, or microsatellites, are the primary focus of DNA profiling.
DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling are two examples of molecular technologies that can be used to determine an individual’s identity by analyzing their specific genetic make-up.
What Is the Difference between DNA Fingerprinting and DNA Profiling blog post briefly explains about
What is DNA fingerprinting technique?
DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory technique used to establish the probable identity of an individual based on the unique nucleotide sequences of specific areas of human DNA. The geneticist Sir Alec Jeffreys of the United Kingdom and Dr. Jeffrey Glassberg of the United States came up with it on their own in 1983 and 1984, respectively.
Sir Alec Jeffreys first approach was based on RFLP analysis of minisatellite DNA. So, DNA fingerprinting uses RFLP analysis as one of its main methods. For RFLP analysis, you need a lot of DNA, usually more than 25 ng, and it needs to be mostly undamaged.
Furthermore, in traditional DNA fingerprinting, enzymes called “restriction enzymes” cut the DNA in the samples into smaller bits. After that, the DNA that has been digested can be separated using gel electrophoresis, and the resulting fragments can be immobilised on a membrane using a Southern blot.
Following that, these fragments will be able to hybridise with the radio-labeled DNA probes that contain the minisatellite. It is also possible to use oligonucleotide sequences as probes, and these sequences may directly hybridise to the DNA fragments that are present on the gel. Furthermore, the size of the restriction fragments varies depending on the number of repeats of minisatellites in each individual. As a result, the visualization of the fragments allows the individual to be identified. Furthermore, AFLP is a faster method than RFLP as it uses the PCR amplification of VNTRs of different alleles.
What is DNA Profiling technique?
DNA profiling, also known as genetic profiling is a crucial forensic method that is used in the process of identifying individuals. Additionally, it is essential for the testing of parental relationships. In addition, Sir Alec Jeffreys, Peter Gill, and Dave Werrett of the Forensic Science Service (FSS) devised this method to compare the DNA profiles of the criminal suspects. This method was used to compare the DNA profiles of the criminal suspects. In addition, DNA profiling in the modern day is an easy process that is mostly automated and made easier to understand statistically.
DNA profiling makes use of a panel of multi-allelic STR markers, which are architecturally similar to the original minisatellites. However, in contrast to minisatellites, short tandem repeats (STRs) are significantly shorter, and as a result, it is simpler to amplify them using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). STRs refer to the repetition of the same four bases. It is feasible to amplify them by employing primers that are particular to their sequence.
Gel electrophoresis or capillary electrophoresis is then used to separate the fragments. In general, up to 30 STRs can be analysed in a single capillary electrophoresis injection. Although the number of their alleles is very small, STRs are highly polymorphic. Normally, similar STR alleles occur in around 5-20% of individuals.
Difference between DNA Fingerprinting and DNA Profiling
DNA fingerprinting refers to the analysis of DNA to identify individuals. DNA profiling is the process of acquiring a specific DNA pattern, known as a profile, from a person or a sample of body tissue.
DNA fingerprinting is a type of molecular genetics that uses a person’s unique DNA patterns to identify them. DNA profiling, on the other hand, is a type of forensics that is used in both criminal investigations and parentage tests.
DNA fingerprinting focuses heavily on VNTRs, which can include both microsatellites and minisatellites, whereas DNA profiling has a primary emphasis on STRs, which are microsatellites.
The three most extensively used procedures for DNA fingerprinting are RFLP, AFLP, and PCR, with PCR serving as the primary tool for DNA profiling.
Individuals can be uniquely identified in a laboratory environment using the DNA fingerprinting technique. In general, molecular biology tools like RFLP, AFLP, and PCR are used to examine the genome’s VNTRs. DNA profiling is a forensic method for figuring out who someone is. But it is based on the use of PCR to look at STR regions of the genome. DNA profiling is a straightforward method. It is also used to find out who the parents are. So, the main difference between DNA fingerprinting and DNA profiling is the way they are done and what they are used for.
Frequently Asked Questions
Most frequent questions and answers
1. Is DNA fingerprinting the same as DNA profiling?
No, DNA fingerprinting refers to the analysis of DNA to identify individuals. DNA profiling is the process of acquiring a specific DNA pattern.
2. What is the difference between DNA fingerprinting and fingerprinting?
3. What are the advantages of DNA profiling?
DNA profiling can be used to verify paternity, discover genetic illnesses early, and put suspects at the site of a crime.
4. Who discovered DNA profiling?
Sir Alec Jeffreys in union with Peter Gill and Dave Werrett of the Forensic Science Service (FSS) to compare the DNA profiles of the criminal suspects.