Table of Contents
This List 10 Economic Importance of Fungi article discusses the major economic importance of fungi in industry. Economic importance of fungi in industry are as follows:
Economic Importance of Fungi in Industry
1. Fermentation of Alcohol
In the brewing and baking yeast is the principal ingredient. The processing of sugar-based solutions and creates ethyl ethanol and carbon dioxide. It is also used in the winemaking or brewing industries to make alcohol and other by-products like carbon dioxide. Today, carbon dioxide is commercially produced, collected, then solidified, and sold as “dry ice”. In bread industry carbon dioxide makes the dough rise and makes the bread lighter.
In the alcohol industry, yeast is a key economic importance of fungi in industry. It releases an enzyme complex called Zymase that converts sugar to alcohol. It is not able to break the starch directly into sugar due to the absence of diastase. Thus, moulds are utilized as a source of starters to aid in the scarification of the starch. Then, yeast is used in the second step to alter the sugar. Example: Aspergillus flavus is used to make African indigenous beer.
2. Preparations of Enzyme
There are many enzymes that come from the fungi. All are makes economic importance of fungi in industry, like Digestin, Polyzime, Taka diastase, and many more. They are all used in the process of dextrinization of starch and the desiring of textiles.
Amylase is a protein made by Aspergillus niger and A. oryzae that has two starch splitting components. Saccharoymces cerevisiae makes an enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose, referred to as Invertase. In a combination with glucose and fructose, the enzyme aids to hydrolyze sucrose.
3. Organic acid Preparation
The moulds used create various organic acids like oxalic acid citric acid, glucoseconic acids, fumaric acid, gallic acid, and so on. These organic acids can be purchased commercially another economic importance of fungi in industry.
Aspergillus Niger creates Oxalic acid through the process of fermentation. Mould fermentation the main reason for the production of Citric acid.
Moulds and certain kinds from Penicillium and Aspergillus have been utilized for making gluconic acids from sugars. In Europe and America Gallic acid has been produced commercially by the fungi.
Gibberellins are plant hormones which are used to accelerate the growth of several horticultural crops. The fungi Gibberella fujikuroi is responsible for the production of these hormones. This fungus causes a disease in rice which is accompanied by abnormal elongation.
5. Cheese Production
Certain Fungi are utilized in the refining process for cheese. They are referred to as moulds for cheese. They give a distinctive texture and flavour to the cheese.
There are two types of mould refined cheese such as Camembert and Brie types, these are soft cheese and the second one is Roquefort Gorgonzola and Stilton cheese. The Roquefort Gorgonzola and Stilton cheese are green or blue veined cheese.
6. Protein Manufacture
Protein synthesis is carried out by fungi and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis). Yeast contains high protein content.
In the industrial process, yeast is grown on ammonia and molasses, which serve as the primary nitrogen and carbon sources. They make a product called Food Yeast, which contains about 15% protein and vitamin B.
Yeast is the primary source of vitamin B complex. They are manufactured and sold in the market using dried yeast or yeast extracts.
Ergosterol is a vitamin D-containing by-product of many moulds and yeasts.
Ashby gossypii, a filamentous yeast, aids in the production of riboflavin.
Many fungi contain a high amount of fat such as Endomyces vernalis, Penicillium javanicum and Oidium lactis. However, the production of fat from these fungi is a costly process.
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