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Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure and Function with Diagram

Starting close to the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a vast organelle made up of membrane sheets and tubules that stretch throughout the cell. Many of the products made by a cell are made, packaged, and secreted by the endoplasmic reticulum. Lets talk more about endoplasmic reticulum structure and function with diagram.

What Is Endoplasmic Reticulum?

It is widely acknowledged that the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a crucial cellular structure. Whereas, the nucleus’s job is to serve as the cell brain, the ER works as a manufacturing and packaging mechanism.  The ER works closely with the Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, messenger RNA, and transfer RNA.

Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure is a network of membranes in the cell that connect to the nucleus. The membranes are a little different in each cell, and the size and shape of the ER depend on how busy the cell is.

For instance, neither prokaryotes nor red blood cells have any kind of ER. If a cell makes and releases a lot of proteins, it will need a lot of ER. A cell from the pancreas or liver is a good example of a cell with a large ER structure.

Diagram of Endoplasmic Reticulum

Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure and Function with Diagram

Figure 1: Endoplasmic Reticulum structure and function with diagram.

Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure

From anatomical point of view, the ER membrane system has two parts: cisternae and sheets. Cisternae are made up of tubes and are connected in a three-dimensional network. In mammals, they are about 50 nm wide, while in yeast, they are only 30 nm wide.

On the other hand, ER sheets are two-dimensional sacs that are surrounded by a membrane and spread throughout the cytoplasm. They are often found with ribosomes and special proteins called translocons, which are needed for the translation of proteins within the RER.

Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum

About half of an animal cell’s membrane surface is made up of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle that is found in both plants and animals. It is a very important place where fats and other proteins are processed. Some of these things are made for and sent to other organelles.

There are two kinds of endoplasmic reticulum: rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The endoplasmic reticulum can be seen in both animal and plant cells. The ER of cells that specialise in making proteins will continue to be rough ER, while the ER of cells that make fats and steroid hormones will be smooth ER.

i) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Rough ER (RER) is also present in the ribosomes section and is essential for protein synthesis and packaging. When mRNA travels from the nucleus to a ribosome on the RER’s surface, protein synthesis begins. Ribosomes bind to the ER membrane, making it “rough.” The RER is also connected to the nuclear envelope, which surrounds the nucleus. Since the perinuclear space and the ER lumen are directly connected, molecules can move through both.

As the ribosome makes the chain of amino acids, it is pushed into the cisternal space of the RER. When all of the proteins have been made and collected, the RER pinches off a vesicle. Some proteins are used inside the cell, while others are sent out into the space between cells. The vesicle, which is a small membrane bubble, can move into either the cell membrane or the Golgi apparatus.

ii) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth ER has smooth walls because the ribosomes are not attached to the membranes. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is mostly found in cells that use lipids (such as steroids) and glycogen for energy. Some examples are adipose cells, interstitial cells, cells in the liver that store glycogen, heart conduction fibres, spermatocytes, and leucocytes.

Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum

It is largely responsible for transferring proteins and other carbohydrates to organs such lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, the plasma membrane, etc.

They also increase the surface area available for biological responses. They contribute significantly to the creation of the skeletal structure.

They are needed to make proteins, lipids, glycogen, and steroid hormones like cholesterol, progesterone, and testosterone.

During cell division, they help put together the membranes around the nuclei. The ER has many different jobs, such as moving materials between different parts of the cell.

It cleans the cells and gets rid of waste. They also break down old parts of cells by digesting foreign or undesirable materials andonar. The digestive enzymes that break down foreign matter that gets into the cell are in the sacs that are surrounded by a membrane.

FAQ

FAQ's on Endoplasmic Reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum is a tubular network of membranes found within the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cell.

The endoplasmic reticulum is classified into two types: Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Rough endoplasmic reticulum.

The endoplasmic reticulum is an important part of eukaryotic cells (ER). It is very important for proteins and lipids to develop, be processed, and move around.

The main difference between SER and RER is whether or not they have ribosomes. SER does not have ribosomes, while RER does.

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