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The General Environment Segments and Elements

  • In this the general environment segments and elements post we have briefly explained about segments of environment, and scope of environmental studies.

  • The word ‘environment‘ comes from the French word ‘environner,’ which meaning to encircle, surround, or encircle. In Ecology, the biologist Jacob Van Uerkal (1864-1944) coined the term “environment.”
  • Ecology is the study of the interactions between living organisms and their surroundings. The Environment Protection Act of 1986 defines environment as the sum total of land, water, and air, as well as their interrelationships with humans and other living organisms.
  • Environmental Science is an interdisciplinary topic that entails the investigation of interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment, with a focus on pollution and deterioration.
  • Environment studies is an interdisciplinary study that examines several aspects in a holistic manner. Chemistry, physics, life science, medical science, agriculture, public health, sanitary engineering, geography, geology, and atmospheric science are some of the fields of environmental studies.
  • It is the study of environmental physical phenomena. It investigates the origins, reactions, transit, effect, and fate of biological species in the air, water, and soil, as well as the impact of and from human activity.
  • Environmental science is concerned with the study of processes in soil, water, air, and creatures that result in pollution or environmental damage, as well as the scientific basis for establishing a standard that is acceptable to humans and natural ecosystems as clean, safe, and healthy.

The General Environment Segments and Elements

  • According to Boring, ‘A person’s environment consists of the sum total of the stimulation which he receives from his conception until his death.’ Indicating that environment comprises various types of forces such as physical, intellectual, mental, economic, political, cultural, social, moral and emotional.
  • Douglas and Holland defined that ‘The term environment is used to describe, in aggregate, all the external forces, influences and conditions, which affect the life, nature, behaviour and the growth, development and maturity of living organisms’.

Segments of Environment


  • The Atmosphere forms a characteristic protective layer surrounding the earth that is around 100 kilometres thick. The atmosphere is a blanket of gases that surrounds the globe and protects its surface from the Sun’s harmful UV rays.
  • It keeps life on the planet alive. It also maintains the earth’s temperature, keeping it from getting too hot or cold. It protects it from the harsh atmosphere of space. Nitrogen and oxygen, as well as argon, carbon dioxide, and trace gases, make up the atmosphere.
  • The energy balance at the Earth’s surface is influenced significantly by the atmosphere. It absorbs the majority of cosmic rays from space as well as a significant percentage of the sun’s electromagnetic radiation. It emits only UV, visible, near infrared, and radio waves (0.14 to 40 m) while blocking out tissue-damaging ultra-violet wavelengths below 300 nm.


  • The hydrosphere is made up of all forms of water resources, including oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, streams, reservoirs, polar icecaps, glaciers, and groundwater. Oceans hold 97 percent of the world’s water, whereas polar icecaps and glaciers hold around 2% of the world’s water resources. Only around 1% of the world’s fresh water is available for human use as surface water in rivers, lakes, and streams, as well as ground water.


  • The outer mantle of the solid earth is known as the lithosphere. Minerals, organic matter, air, and water are among the minerals found in the earth’s crusts and soils.


  • The world of living beings and their interactions with the environment, namely the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, is referred to as the biosphere.

Scope of Environmental Studies


  • The global climate change includes wind patterns, current ocean patterns, monsoon patterns, and so on. This necessitates extensive research and the identification of potential solutions to these issues. These also necessitate the labour and resources of numerous countries, if not the entire world.
  • Sustainable Development: As we all know, sustainable development refers to progress that is made without jeopardising future generations’ needs. It all begins and ends with environmental preservation.


  • Environmental and ecological conservation refers to the preservation of the quality of nature, the environment, and its components, as well as their integrity.
  • Anthropogenic activities have wreaked havoc on the ecosystem incalculably. A fundamental environmental education teaches us everything we need to know about conserving the environment and the numerous resources we have.


  • Many businesses, from agriculture to information technology, are looking for natural or environmentally friendly alternatives as products or resources. This has aided in the dissemination of information and the reduction of pollution produced by harmful compounds. Severe pollution, as well as the environmentally friendly character of the alternatives, will aid in reducing pollution at the individual level.


  • One of the most important aspects of environmental conservation and pollution reduction is the rise in waste in every country, as well as the challenge of its proper treatment and disposal.

Energy efficiency

  • Conserving energy reduces carbon emissions, saves money, and has a beneficial environmental impact.


  • Research and development is the most significant aspect of environmental education since it lays the foundation for future products, services, plans, and environmental conservation. It has two goals: to gain a better understanding of the environment and to come up with new uses for it.

Further Readings