Eubacteria Characteristics and Examples

In this eubacteria characteristics and examples post we have briefly explained about Eubacteria, characteristics of eubacteria, structures and common examples.

Eubacteria Characteristics and Examples

Eubacteria, also known as “true” bacteria, are single-celled prokaryotic microorganisms that have a variety of characteristics of eubacteria and can be found in a variety of environments around the world. Except for archaebacteria, this term encompasses all types of bacteria. Because eubacteria are so common, they belong to one of the three domains of life: Bacteria.

Structure

Some eubacteria have flagella, which are protrusions of protein filaments used for movement. Other Eubacteria may have pili, which are small protrusions on the cell’s surface that are used to adhere to surfaces and transfer DNA. A biofilm is formed when a large number of eubacteria adhere to a surface and are surrounded by a polysaccharide sac. Antibiotic resistance is high in this complex.

Eubacteria

Structure and Characteristics of Eubacteria

Plasmids are also found in bacteria that have been separated from the bacteria’s circular DNA. Plasmids, also known as “replicons,” are self-replicating DNA molecules. Not all plasmids, however, replicate in bacteria. These elements allow for horizontal gene transfer, which allows a bacterium to gain new genes and thus characteristics of eubacteria.

They primarily aid in the rapid mutation of bacteria into different factors. Plasmids, like other genetic material, can be transferred to daughter cells during replication. They are the most commonly used DNA structure in research because they are simple to manipulate, implant, and measure.

Characteristics of Eubacteria

Eubacteria, or microorganisms without a defined membrane nucleus, share a number of characteristics of eubacteria. They lack membrane-bound organelles because they are prokaryotes. The cellular wall of most eubacteria is made up of peptidoglycans in a cross-linked chain pattern.

This provides the bacteria cell wall with the necessary strength to maintain its shape and size in changing environments. Small molecules can pass through the cell wall, but larger molecules and ions require the presence of carrier proteins and channel proteins to enter the cell. A widely used classification system divides all living things into three categories: eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.

Mode of Nutrition

Domain both heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms feed on Eubacteria. The most well-known type of nutrition in eubacteria is heterotrophic, which means they must consume food from other organic carbon sources, primarily plant or animal matter. Autotrophs, on the other hand, produce their own food through photosynthesis.

Respiration

Aerobic or anaerobic eubacterial respiration is possible. Aerobic – Survive in the presence of oxygen (strict aerobes) or switch to anaerobic respiration in the absence of oxygen (non-strict aerobes) (facultative anaerobes). Anaerobes use a type of respiration known as fermentation. Some anaerobes can exist in both the presence and absence of oxygen. These are referred to as facultative anaerobes.

Reproduction

Eubacteria

Eubacteria have the ability to form tough endospores to survive

Eubacteria can reproduce in two ways: sexually and asexually. Through conjugation, transduction, and transformation, genetic material is exchanged during sexual reproduction. Eubacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission, endospore formation, fragmentation, budding, and conidia formation.

Types of Eubacteria

Bacteria are classified into three types based on their shape: bacilli, cocci, and spirilla. Bacilli are rod-shaped, cocci are spherical, and spirilla are spiral- or wave-shaped. Their shape was frequently used as a classification system until recent DNA studies called these classifications into question. Bacteria may remain linked after division, forming clusters, filaments, and tight coils. Eubacteria are typically divided into five different phyla based on the number of characteristics of eubacteria:

Chlamydia: Chlamydial agents are intracytoplasmic obligate parasites of mammalian cells and can damage infected cells in tissues.

Cyanobacteria: Cyanobacteria are most commonly known to be aquatic and gain energy through photosynthesis.

Proteobacteria: All “Proteobacteria” are Gram-negative (though some may stain Gram-positive or Gram-variable in practice), with an outer membrane mainly composed of lipopolysaccharides.

Firmicutes: It is a phylum of bacteria, most of which have gram-positive cell wall structure. A few, however, such as Megasphaera, Pectinatus, Selenomonas, and Zymophilus, have a porous pseudo-outer membrane that causes them to stain gram-negative.

Spirochetes: It is long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria that are known to cause Lyme disease. They differ from the other types of bacteria in their helical shape and movement. They usually move by rotating along their axis.

Eubacteria

Eubacteria can take on many different shapes

Gram-positive, Gram negative, and Miscellaneous Eubacteria are the most common types of Eubacteria. While the Domain Bacteria contains many phyla of eubacteria, these relationships are constantly changing and are still being defined based on new DNA experiments.

The bacterial outer membrane is an additional layer that surrounds the cell wall in some bacteria. This extra layer cannot be stained with a Gram stain, which is commonly used by researchers to classify bacteria. As a result, they are known as “Gram-negative” bacteria or Gram-positive bacteria are those that can be seen with a Gram stain. Gram-negative bacteria typically contain more pathogenic to humans species, whereas Gram-positive bacteria are either beneficial or non-harmful to human health.

Examples

Eubacteria are widespread bacteria. You’ve probably heard of a few of them, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, which causes pneumonia, and Lactobacillus, which is a beneficial bacterium in our gut. When it comes to eubacteria, these bacteria are classified into five groups: proteobacteria, cyanobacteria, chlamydia and spirochetes, and gram-positive.

Escherichia Coli

E. coli is an abbreviation for Escherichia coli. These bacteria are usually harmless in your digestive tract, but the wrong strain can destroy it. E. coli is a large group of bacteria known as proteobacteria, which includes several strains. E. coli O157: H7, for example, is a strain that causes intestinal infections. Urinary tract infections are caused by other E. coli strains.

Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are large colonies of photosynthetic bacteria found in water. Not only do they produce their own food, but if the colony is large enough, you can see these bacteria without using a microscope. Cyanobacteria, interestingly, have two pretty amazing bragging rights. In addition to being the oldest fossils, according to Berkley University, cyanobacteria aided in the evolution of plants.

Borrelia Burgdorferi

Borrelia burgdorferi, also known as B. burgdorferi, is a type of bacteria known as a spirochete. They get their name from the unique spiral shape they have under the microscope. Borrelia burgdorferi, while sounding like a fun time, is anything but. In humans, Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease. Generally, B. burgdorferi does not cause tick problems in most small animals. When it is transmitted to humans, however, it causes an infection with a variety of symptoms, including fever and rash.

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Chlamydia bacteria are gram-negative, immobile bacteria that belong to the Chlamydiaceae family. Chlamydia trachomatis is a type of chlamydial bacteria. Chlamydia trachomatis is a “bad bacteria” that causes trachoma, a disease that blinds 1.9 million people. This disease is spread by flies and person-to-person contact. Another strain of these bacteria is also known to cause chlamydia, a sexually transmitted disease.

Staphylococcus Aureus

Last but not least is Staphylococcus aureus, also known as Staphylococcus. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium, which means it retains its purple colour when tested with a gram stain. Staphylococcus is a member of the Staphylococcaceae family and is a common germ that everyone has in their noses and on their skin. However, under the right conditions, this type of eubacteria can cause serious infections. It is the causative agent of the MRSA infection. MRSA is a serious infection in healthcare because it is resistant to common antibiotics.

Further Readings

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