Eukaryotic cells are often more complex and bigger than prokaryotic cells. Additionally, they contain a variety of cellular bodies known as organelles. The organelles play a role in cellular activity and serve as compartments for localising metabolic processes. Microscopic protozoa, unicellular algae, and fungi have eukaryotic cells. Let’s learn more about eukaryotic cells organelles and their functions with diagram.
Eukaryotic Cells Meaning
The word “eukaryotic” refers to living things that have a nucleus inside a nuclear envelope. They are part of the Domain of Eukarya. In the three-domain structure of life, the domain Eukaryota is one of the three domains. The other two domains are Bacteria and Archaea. Most scientists now think that the Eukaryote came from the Archaea or was the twin of the Archaea that became the Asgard Archaea.
Even though eukaryotes only make up a small percentage of all living species, their global biomass is thought to have been the same as that of prokaryotes because they are much bigger. During the Proterozoic aeon, which happened between 2.1 and 1.6 billion years ago, eukaryotes first appeared. It is likely that they were flagellated phagotrophs.
Eukaryotic Cells Definition
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-like organelles such as the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria, and chloroplasts can be found in algae and plants, whereas prokaryotic cells contain primitive organelles. Eukaryotes can be single-celled, but they can also be multicellular and have different types of cells that make up different types of tissue. In comparison, prokaryotes are usually single-celled. Most eukaryotes are insects, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotes can also include protists.
Scientists have seen that eukaryotic organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Meiosis is the process by which asexual reproduction happens. After two rounds of cell division, DNA is copied to make four haploid daughter cells. Mitosis is the process by which sexual reproduction happens. During this process, a single cell tends to divide into two cells that are genetically identical.
These function as sex cells also called gametes. There is only one set of chromosomes for each gamete and each is made up of the appropriate pair of parental chromosomes which was a result of genetic recombination during the process of meiosis.
Eukaryotic Cells Diagram
Figure 1: Eukaryotic Cells Organelles and Their Functions with Diagram
Eukaryotic Cells Structure
The eukaryotic cell structure is mainly comprised of below mentioned eukaryotic cell parts:
1. Plasma Membrane: The plasma membrane makes the cell separate from the rest of the world. It has special proteins inserted into it that help move things inside and outside of the cell.
2. Cell Wall: A plant’s cell has a rigid structure called a cell wall that is on the outside of the cell. But it is not present in animal cells. It helps give the cell structure and helps cells communicate with each other. It is a protective layer that keeps pathogens and other harmful things from getting into the cell and hurting it. Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, protein, and other things make up most of the cell wall.
3. Cytoskeleton: The microfilaments, microtubules, and fibres of the cytoskeleton are present in the cytoplasm to provide the cell with its ideal shape, secure the organelles, and facilitate motility.
4. Mitochondria: You could also call these the “powerhouse of cells” because they make energy. There is an outside membrane and an inside membrane. It makes folds in the inner membrane, which are called cristae. They help keep a cell’s metabolism in check (figure 1: eukaryotic cells organelles and their functions with diagram).
5. Endoplasmic Reticulum: It looks like a network of tiny tubes that divide the surface of the cell into two parts: the luminal part and the extraluminal part. Endoplasmic Reticulum comes in two forms: In the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, you can find ribosomes and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, which is smooth because it has no ribosomes.
6. Nucleus: The nucleus is composed of nucleoplasm, which consists of DNA and proteins. The nuclear envelope is comprised of two membranes, the outer membrane and the inner membrane. These two membranes let the passage of molecules, ions, and RNA. Additionally, ribosome development occurs within the nucleus.
7. Golgi Apparatus: It is mainly composed of flat structures called cisternae which are disc-shaped. They lack in sieve cells of plants and red blood cells of humans. Golgi apparatus are arranged close to the nucleus, parallel and concentrically. It is an excellent spot for glycoprotein and glycolipid formation.
Eukaryotic cells are the only kind that can be found in plants, animals, fungi, protozoa, and other complex species. The following are some examples of eukaryotic organisms:
Plant Cells: Cell walls are made of cellulose, which gives the plant its strength. It has a large vacuole that keeps the pressure of the turgor in place. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells.
Animal cells: They have a cell membrane and thus lack a cell wall. And that is because animals have shapes that differ. They have the potential for phagocytosis and pinocytosis is to be carried out.
Protozoa: Species that have only one cell are called protozoa. For motility, certain protozoa have cilia. A thin layer called a pellicle covers the cell and keeps it safe.
Fungal cells: Chitin is found to make up the cell walls of fungal cells. Many types of fungi have openings called septa that allow cytoplasm and organelles to move through them.
FAQs on Eukaryotic Cells Organelles and Their Functions with Diagram
Eukaryotic cells are the cells that contain a membrane bound nucleus and organelles.
Eukaryotic cells have both nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA. Eukaryotes use cytoskeletal proteins and mitosis to separate duplicated chromosomes.
About 2 billion years ago, the first eukaryotic cells appeared. This is shown by the endosymbiotic theory, which says that prokaryotic organisms gave rise to eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to have come from bacteria that worked together.