Major Functional Role of Botanical Garden

In this article we will discuss about definition of botanical garden, history, and major functional role of botanical garden.

Definition of botanical garden

Most people think of the garden as a place to grow flowers, fruits, or vegetables. But a botanic or botanical garden is a place where scientists and people who aren’t scientists can learn about plants and get interested in them. Botanists, home gardeners, nurserymen, horticulturists, landscape gardeners, and foresters all find the botanical gardens very useful. Also, millions of tourists from all over the world visit the gardens every year.

The botanical gardens should have morphological gardens to show how plants spread their seeds, genetics or breeding gardens to show how genes work, and taxonomic gardens to show how plants are related to each other. There should be a fruticetum, arboteum, and a section of economic plants. There should also be green houses and nurseries for growing and spreading exotic, rare, and fragile plants.

A botanical garden is a place where botany research is done, especially on the local plants. There should be a place to study plants, a library, a place to study photographs, a lecture hall, and places to relax. In fact, all of the basic and applied parts of botany fall under the botanical garden’s purview, and it becomes the cultural hub of the area where it is located.

History of botanical garden

Gardens have been around as long as people have. Man had started to grow plants in gardens so he could easily get food, get drugs, or grow beautiful flowers. Even very primitive tribes engage in vegetable gardening and often, surprisingly, flower gardening.

In ancient times, gardens were a big part of the grounds of temples, palaces, and the homes of people with power. People in the area were amazed by how many plants the ancient Egyptians were able to grow. The “Hanging Gardens” of Babylon are one of the ancient world’s wonders.

With the Renaissance and the opening up of people’s minds, the art of gardening grew because people were more interested in it. Strange and useful plants from the newly discovered lands gave plant introduction a new boost.

As we’ve seen, the herbalists of the 1600s taught people about hundreds of plants, many of which grow in gardens. As people became more interested in growing flowers to make their yards look nicer, species from all over the world were brought in. The same interest in learning that led to the founding and growth of the world’s best universities also led to the creation of botanical gardens near the schools.

Major functional role of botanical garden

Botanic gardens have been around for a long time in India. They may have been around as early as 546 B.C. During the reign of King Bimbisara of Magadh (modern Bihar) from 546 to 494 B.C., the famous Indian doctor Jivaka Komarabhacca did a lot of research on the medicinal plants of India.

The botanical gardens showed how human culture had grown in the areas where they were located. They also showed the beauty of a country or a nation. In Indian history, which goes back thousands of years, we can see that these gardens grew when different dynasties came to power and died out when those dynasties fell.

Botanical gardens did well when the Mughals, the East India Company, and the British were in power. When they lost power, the gardens got worse. Now that India has its own government, they are coming up again. There is now a network of botanical gardens that are all over the country and have a lot of plant-related activity going on.

Functions of Botanical Gardens

Major functional role of botanical garden are

1. Botanical gardens provide the function of outdoor research facilities.

2. Before they are lost to science, initiate research on tropical and temperate ecosystems and their biota and conserve these systems.

3. Serve as gene pools or germ plasm repositories for the wild relatives of commercially significant plants.

4. Establish nature centres and youth museums to raise awareness about the deterioration of tropical and temperate ecosystems and environmental degradation.

5. Maintain abandoned and less appealing ornamental plants.

6. Train urban arborists in the urban tree planting process.

7. Collaborate with the university and others to perform environmental biology research, etc.

8. Organize educational programmes to raise children’s environmental consciousness and educate teachers in environmental education.

9. Centers for endangered and unusual species conservation

10. Botanical gardens supply plant material for scientific study.

11. They act as pollution indicator centres by cultivating plants that are vulnerable to pollutants.

12. The majority of economic plants were first introduced and dispersed around the globe through botanic gardens.

13. Inspire poets, writers, etc. through delivering aesthetic satisfaction.

14. Tranquil location for relaxing, the gardens creates a setting conducive to relaxation and alleviates both physical and mental stress.

15. Garden treatment for eye health, anxiety, etc.

16. Beautiful gardens provide considerable consolation to senior citizens.

17. Gardens also organise flower exhibits and highlight seasonal plants, blooms, and very interesting plants.

18. The landscape gardens are gaining popularity and provide a great deal of appeal to adjacent structures such as libraries, museums, and sports fields, etc.

19. Protect the vegetation and wildlife in their natural environment.