Life Cycle of Malarial Parasite in Man

In this life cycle of malarial parasite in man post we have briefly explained about malarial, signs and symptoms, life cycle of plasmodium malaria, diagnosis and treatment.

Malaria

Malaria is one of the most serious infectious diseases in the world today, despite more than a century of intensive research and clinical advances. Because of its extensive dissemination, it poses a threat to more than half of the world’s population.

According to the WHO, there were around 214 million cases of malaria worldwide in 2015, resulting in approximately 438,000 fatalities; Africa accounted for approximately 88 percent of cases and 91 percent of deaths.

Although malaria is not a serious threat in the United States at the moment, the likelihood of its reappearance is a cause for alarm.

Plasmodium falciparum, P.knowlesi, P.malariae, P.ovale, and P.vivax are the protozoan parasites that cause malaria. Plasmodium is a parasite that infects red blood cells and is spread by Anopheles mosquito bites.

P.falciparum is currently the most prevalent and fatal cause of malaria, sometimes known as falciparum malaria. Falciparum malaria is common in densely populated areas of Africa and Asia, placing many people at risk of contracting the disease’s most severe form.

Signs and symptoms

Malaria is characterised by recurrent bouts of high fever and chills. Malaria symptoms include malaise, quick and feeble pulse, polyuria, headache, myalgia, nausea, and vomiting.

Malaria symptoms include malaise, abrupt chills, and fever (39-41°C). The temperature subsides after 2 to 6 hours of these symptoms, and excessive perspiration lasts for 2 to 3 hours, followed by acute exhaustion.

These symptoms are caused by Plasmodium emerging from red blood cells at the same time, causing a high number of red blood cells to rupture at the same time, causing damage to the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow.

Patients produce sludge blood (blood in which red blood cells agglutinate into clumps) as a result of organ damage, which can lead to a shortage of oxygen, blood vessel necrosis, organ failure, and death.

Life Cycle of Plasmodium Malaria

Life cycle of plasmodium malaria with multiple developmental stages produced alternatively in mosquitos and humans.

When an infected mosquito feeds on a blood meal, sporozoites in the salivary gland of the mosquito are injected into the blood of the host. These parasites pass through the bloodstream and grow into schizonts in the liver.

The schizonts then go through schizogony, which results in the release of a large number of merozoites all at once. Merozoites infect red blood cells as they travel through the bloodstream.

Merozoites evolve into trophozoites inside red blood cells, which then create more merozoites. Malaria symptoms are caused by the synchronised release of merozoites from red blood cells in the evening.

Furthermore, certain trophozoites can develop into both male and female gametocytes. When a mosquito gets a blood meal from an infected person, the gametocytes are taken up. The mosquito’s gut is where sexual sporogony takes place.

In the insect intestine, gametocytes combine to generate zygotes. The zygotes lengthen and become motile, forming an ookinete.

This type grows into an oocyst after penetrating the midgut wall. To finish the life cycle, the oocyst releases new sporozoites, which travel to the mosquito salivary glands.

Malaria

Life cycle of plasmodium malaria in man

Diagnosis

Malaria is diagnosed using a combination of microscopic examination of Plasmodium developmental forms in blood smears and fast EIA techniques that identify Plasmodium antigens or enzymes.

Treatment

Prevention: Use of insecticides and insecticide-treated bed nets can limit the spread of malaria.

Treatment: Although some Plasmodium spp. has exhibited resistance to antimalarial medicines, treatments including chloroquine, atovaquone, artemether, and lumefantrine can be administered for both acute and preventive therapy.

Further Readings

Reference

  1. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15014-malaria
  2. https://www.medicinenet.com/malaria_facts/article.htm
  3. https://app.pulsenotes.com/medicine/infectious-diseases/notes/malaria