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Movement in Animals and Plants

  • Zoology

In this movement in animals and plants post we have briefly explained about movements in lower animals, higher animals and plants. Read on to learn more about support and movement in animals and plants!

Organs of Movement in Animals

Animal Locomotion

Animals, insects, birds, reptiles and fishes are multicellular eukaryotes. They migrate in three different modes. They are amoeboid movement, ciliary movement and muscular movement.

Amoeboid movement: In animal cell migration is possible by cytoplasm streaming which followed by the formation of pseudopodia organs of movement in animals. In animal cells, microfilament involvement is observed in amoeboid movement. 

Ciliary movements: Cilia an organs of movement in animals is the short form of the flagella present in ciliated epithelium. Coordinated movements of cilia helping those cells to migrate. The function of cilia almost similar to flagellum. 

Muscular movement: In higher organisms, muscles an organs of movement in animals based movement is very common. Coordinated function of muscles, skeletal and neural systems results the muscle movement.

Lower Animals

In lower animals skeletal system is underdeveloped or absent. In such condition they have to use muscles or specialized locomotive organs for the locomotion. Ex. Earthworms, snails, snake, fishes, etc.

Locomotion in Earthworm: Long tube like structured earthworm moves underground by means of waves of muscular contraction an organs of movement in animals. During muscular contraction body segments are alternatively shorten and lengthen. A special type S-shaped setae ring present in all segments of the earthwork except first, last and clitellum which help to anchor the surrounding soil. Mucus lubrication secretion make easier of their movement in soil.

Locomotion in Snake: Snakes also use muscles for their locomotion. Four types of locomotion were identified in snakes. They are lateral undulation, rectilinear movement, concertina movement and sidewinding organs of movement in animals snakes. In common lateral undulation mode, wave like muscle reflexion from head to tail results the locomotion.

Locomotion in Sea-anemone: Bilateral sea-anemone moves by radial operation of radial pedal. Sea-anemone creeps in the direction of plane of symmetry.

Locomotion in fishes: Fishes swim by using their specialized locomotive organ fins. While moving the fins, the generated thrust helps to move to the fish. With the help of multiple fins fishes can control the direction of movement.

Locomotion in cockroach: Cockroaches have wings as well as legs. Primarily they use the legs for the locomotion and as well as they can use the wings too for the locomotion.

Higher Animals

Large number of animals use limbs for their movement in which muscles are attached endoskeleton or exoskeleton. In vertebrates endoskeleton muscle system is present in which muscles are attached external portion of the bones. But in arthropods exoskeleton muscle system is present in which muscles are attached inside of the skeleton system. Most of the insects use limb system for their movement but they follow different mode of locomotion according to their systems. In birds, limbs are developed into wings as well as legs. Such differentiation is absent in vertebrates.

animal locomotion

Organs of Movement in Animals: Exoskeleton and endoskeleton system

animal locomotion

Organs of Movement in Animals: Modified limb systems

Movement in Plants

Plants also show movements like phototrophism, gravitrophism. In response to light, plant grows towards the light. This movement in plants is called as phototropism. Whereas signalling molecules have their own roles in this process. Auxin is one them. It triggers shoot growth. Stems show positive phototropism and roots show negative phototropism. The growth in response to gravity is called as geotrophism. 

Roots show positive geotrophism and stems show negative trophism. Here again auxin plays an important role in geotrophism. Plant movement against contact stimuli is called as thigmotropism. Climbing plants such as vines are the examples for thigmotropism. When the plant touches some surface, the cell which contact the surface secrete the auxin to the untouched neighbour cell and induce them to grow long. This results bending around the object.

Further Readings