Nuclear Membrane Structure and Function in Animal Cell

In this nuclear membrane structure and function in animal cell post we have briefly explained about nuclear membrane, definition, structure of nuclear membrane, parts of nuclear membrane, and functions.

All eukaryotic cells found in plants, animals, fungi, and protists have a control centre called a nucleus, which stores DNA. Every nucleus is surrounded and protected by a double-layered membrane called the nuclear envelope or nuclear membrane. It is responsible for separating the nucleoplasm (the fluid found in the nucleus) from the cytoplasm.

Definition

The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is a double membrane layer that separates the nucleus’ contents from the rest of the cell. It can be found in the cells of both animals and plants. A cell performs numerous functions, including protein synthesis, molecule conversion to energy, and waste removal.

The nuclear envelope shields the genetic material of the cell from the chemical reactions that occur outside the nucleus. It also contains a large number of proteins that are involved in the organization of DNA and the regulation of genes.

Structure

Nuclear membrane

Nuclear Membrane Structure and Function in Animal Cell

Structure of nuclear membrane made up of two membranes, one inner and one outer. Both membranes are made up of phospholipids organized in a bilayer. The complete nuclear membrane is made up of four phospholipid series.

The perinuclear space is the space between the outer and inner membranes. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for the function of the outer membrane. It is an organelle that plays an important role in protein transport. Ribosomes cover both the outer membrane and the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which are the true sites of protein production.

The nuclear lamina connects the nucleoplasm to the inner nuclear membrane. The nuclear lamina also binds to and secures chromatin, which is loosely organized in protein structure and DNA. The nuclear membrane is supported and strengthened by a protein layer.

Structure of Nuclear Membrane

Outer Membrane

It like the cell membrane, is a lipid bilayer, which means it is made up of two layers of lipid molecules. Ribosomes, structures that make proteins, are found on the surface of the lipid outer layer. It is linked to the endoplasmic reticulum, a cell structure responsible for protein packaging and transport.

Inner Membrane

Nuclear membrane

Structure of nuclear membrane, inner membrane contains proteins that aid in the organization of the nucleus and hold genetic material in place.

The nuclear lamina is a network of fibres and proteins attached to the inner membrane. It structurally supports the nucleus, aids in DNA repair, and regulates cell cycle events such as cell division and DNA replication.

The nuclear lamina is found only in animal cells, though plant cells may have some similar proteins on their inner membrane.

Nuclear Pores

Nuclear pores pass through the nuclear membrane’s outer and inner membranes. They are large protein complexes that allow certain molecules to pass through the nuclear membrane.

Each nuclear pore is composed of approximately 30 different proteins that collaborate to transport materials. They also serve as a link between the outer and inner membranes.

More nuclear pores are formed in the nuclear membrane during cell division in preparation for cell division. It eventually degrades and reforms around the nuclei of the two daughter cells.

Nucleolus

These are tiny spherical bodies found in the nucleus that are usually found in a centralised location but are usually found closer to the nuclear membrane.

The fact that they are built by the (NOR) nucleolus organizing region of chromosomes, which is known to store the genes required for full ribosomal production, distinguishes them from other nuclear material. They are responsible for encoding ribosomal RNA subunits.

Nucleoplasm

The nuclear hyaloplasm, which is the more soluble and liquid portion of the nucleoplasm, is contained in the nucleoplasm, which is a remarkably viscous liquid.

It is a type of protoplasm that is similar to cytoplasm and is found throughout the cell body and on the outside of the nucleus. Because different functions are performed inside the nucleus, a different type of protoplasm is required.

The nucleoplasm is made up of water, dissolved ions, and a variety of other substances. This element is completely contained within the nuclear envelope, which contains nucleotides and critical replication enzymes.

Function

1. The nuclear envelope contains tiny holes known as nuclear pores. The pores allow material to flow into and out of the nucleus. It is also the link between the outer and inner membranes.

2. During the interphase phase of cell division, the surface area of the nuclear envelope expands and doubles the nuclear pores.

3. It is a double membrane that protects the nucleus with many pores that help control the crossing of macromolecules such as proteins and RNA while allowing free passage of water, ions, ATP, and small molecules.

4. The membrane regulates the flow of information in the cell, which is carried out by macromolecules.

Further Readings

Reference