Photosynthetic Apparatus in Plants

In this photosynthetic apparatus in plants post we have briefly explained about photosynthetic apparatus in plants, photosynthesis and the leaf, and photosynthesis within the chloroplast.

Photosynthetic Apparatus in Plants

Photosynthesis is a complex process that requires carbon dioxide, sunlight and water as substrates. It produces oxygen and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P or GA3P), simple carbohydrate molecules high in energy and can subsequently be converted into glucose, sucrose, or other sugar molecules. Sugar molecules have covalent bonds, which conserve energy, and organisms break these molecules to release energy used in the cellular process.

Photosynthetic Apparatus and Summary of Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic apparatus in plants: Photosynthesis uses solar energy, carbon dioxide, and water to produce energy-storing carbohydrates. Oxygen is generated as a waste product of photosynthesis. Image Source:

The sunlight’s energy drives the reaction of water and carbon dioxide molecules to create oxygen and sugar, as shown within the equation of photosynthesis. Although the equation appears simple, it’s executed through several complex stages. Before understanding how light-based photoautotrophs transform light to chemical energy, it’s crucial to understand the physical structures involved.

Photosynthetic Apparatus and Summary of Photosynthesis

Chemical equation for photosynthesis: The basic equation for photosynthesis is deceptively simple. In reality, the process includes many steps involving intermediate reactants and products. Glucose, the primary energy source in cells, is made from two three-carbon GA3P molecules.

Photosynthesis and the Leaf

The process of photosynthesis typically occurs in leaves, comprised of several different layers. The process of photosynthesis happens within a middle layer known as the mesophyll. The gas exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs through tiny, controlled openings, referred to as stomata (singular stoma), that also contribute to regulating the balance of water. The stomata typically are situated on the underside of the leaves, minimizing the loss of water. Each stoma is surrounded by guard cells that control their openings and closures through either shrinking or swelling due to osmotic changes.

Photosynthetic Apparatus and Summary of Photosynthesis

Structure of a leaf (cross-section): Photosynthesis takes place in the mesophyll. The palisade layer contains most of the chloroplast and principal region in which photosynthesis is carried out. The airy spongy layer is the region of storage and gas exchange. The stomata regulate carbon dioxide and water balance.

Photosynthesis within the Chloroplast

All autotrophic eukaryotes photosynthesis occurs within an organelle known as the chloroplast an photosynthetic apparatus in plants. For plants, chloroplast-containing cells exist in the mesophyll. Chloroplasts have a double envelope consisting of an outer membrane and an inside membrane. Inside the double membrane are disc-shaped structures that are stacked called Thylakoids.

Embedded in the thylakoid membrane is chlorophyll an photosynthetic apparatus in plants, a colour that absorbs a specific portion of the visible spectrum and captures sunlight’s energy. Chlorophyll is the plant’s green hue and is the first interaction between plant material and light, along with a variety of proteins that comprise an electron transport chain. The thylakoid membrane is a protective internal space, dubbed the lumen of the thylakoid. A thylakoid-stacked stack is referred to as a granum, and the space filled with liquid surrounding the granum is called the stroma, or “bed.”

Structure of the Chloroplast: Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts, which have an outer membrane and an inner membrane. Stacks of thylakoids called grana form a third membrane layer.


Photosynthesis is the process through which green plants and other living things convert the energy of light into chemical. When green plants photosynthesis it is the process where light energy is captured and utilized to transform carbon dioxide, water and other minerals into oxygen and rich organic compounds with energy.

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