Ponds and Lakes Ecosystem (With Diagram)

Pond and lake are fresh water ecosystems as like other ecosystems. Two main components of ponds and lakes ecosystem areĀ 

i) Abiotic constituent

ii) Biotic constituent

Abiotic component

The pond’s water, dissolved minerals, oxygen, and carbon dioxide make up its abiotic component. The primary source of energy is solar radiation.

Biotic constituent

A lake or pond may have three zones: littoral, limnetic, and pro-fundal, depending on the level of the water and the sorts of plants and animals present. The shallow water area known as the littoral zone is typically inhabited by rooted plants. Small crustaceans, rotifers, insects, and their larvae, as well as algae, are related creatures in the limnetic zone, which extends from the shallows to the depth of effective light penetration. The pro-fundal zone is the portion of deep water where light cannot effectively penetrate. Snails, mussels, crabs, and worms are some of the related organisms.

Ponds and Lakes Ecosystem

(i) Producers

Algae and other aquatic plants including Azolla, Hydrilla, Potamogeton, Pistia, Wolffia, Lemna, Eichhornia, Nymphaea, Jussiaea, etc. are the primary producers in pond ecosystems and lake ecosystems. These are either suspended, rooted at the bottom, or floating. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants that are green transform solar energy into chemical energy. All living things use oxygen in respiration, which is a product of photosynthesis, which is produced by the producers.

(ii) Consumers

The main consumers in a pond ecosystem are the tadpole larvae of frogs, fish, and other aquatic creatures, which feed on green plants and algae. Secondary consumers eat these watery herbivorous creatures. Secondary consumers include frogs, large fish, water snakes, and crabs. Along with the pond’s secondary consumers, there are also top-tier consumers there, such waterfowl, turtles, and so on.

Ponds and Lakes Ecosystem

Figure 1: Ponds and Lakes Ecosystem

(iii) Decomposers

Numerous bacteria and fungus attack the dead corpses of aquatic plants and animals when they pass away, breaking down the complex organic materials into more basic inorganic elements and compounds. The term “decomposers” refers to these microbes. Green plants again use the chemical elements released by decomposers in their nourishment.