Primary and Secondary Functions of Plant Roots

Primary and secondary functions of plant roots post briefly explains about primary and secondary functions of roots.

1. Primary functions of roots

2. Secondary functions of roots

3. Primary and secondary functions of plant roots notes PDF

Primary and Secondary Functions of Plant Roots

Primary functions of roots

1. Anchorage

Roots contribute to the plant’s establishment as well as providing support for the system of aerial shoots.

2. Absorption of Water

Root hairs are the structures in roots that are responsible for the uptake of water and minerals from the surrounding soil.

3. Prevent Soil Erosion

To avoid soil erosion, roots securely retain soil particles in place.

4. Transport

Transporting absorbed water and minerals to the shooting system is one of their roles Roots, too, include channels that allow for the movement of organic food from the upper sections of the plant.

Secondary functions of roots

1. Storage

It occurs in fleshy roots. Examples of fleshy tap roots are: (i) Conical, e.g., Carrot, (ii) Fusiform, e.g., Radish, (iii) Napiform, e.g., Beet, Turnip and (iv) Tuberous, e.g., Mirabilis.

2. Mechanical Support

It is provided by several types of roots: (i) Buttress roots (plank roots), e.g., Bombax, (ii) Prop roots, e.g., Banyan, Rhizophora and (iii) Stilt roots, e.g., Maize, Sugarcane, Pandanus.

3. Climbing

Some weak-stemmed plants, such as ivy, tecoma, betel, and money plant, rely on their roots to adhere to a support and therefore climb it.

4. Perennation

In many biennial and perennial plants e.g., Trichosanthes.

5. Nitrogen Fixation

Nodulated roots of Pea, Bean, Gram, Methi, etc.

6. Aeration

Prop roots, knee roots and pneumatophores of Mangrove plants, e.g., Rhizophora, Heritiera, Sonneratia.

7. Reproduction

By bearing adventitious buds on both tap roots (e.g., Dalbergia) and adventitious roots (e.g., Sweet Potato).

8. Hygroscopic Roots

The roots absorb water from air, e.g., epiphytic roots, young prop roots of Banyan.

9. Floating

By storing air (e.g., Jussiaea = Ludwigia) some of the roots function as floats.

10. Balancing

Lemna, Pistia, and Eichhornia, for example, have a cluster of adventitious roots growing from their nodes and bases to help balance the plants over the water surface.

11. Photosynthesis

As in Trapa, Taeniophyllum, Tinospora, Podostemum.

12. Haustoria

They occur in some parasitic plants for absorption of food from the host, e.g., Cuscuta, Mistletoe.

13. Mycorrhiza

The roots of several plants are associated with fungi to form mycor­rhiza. Mycorrhiza helps the plant in absorption of phosphorus and nitrogen from organic sources and protects the plants from attack of pathogenic fungi.

14. Growth Regulators

Roots synthesize certain growth regulations like cytokinins.

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Primary and secondary functions of plant roots notes PDF