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Simple Microscope Principle and Working

In this study of simple microscope principle and working post we have briefly explained about simple microscope was invented by, simple microscope definition, principle, magnification, parts and applications.

Simple Microscope Was Invented By?

In the late 16th century, simple microscope was invented by a dutch father-son team named Hans and Zacharias Janssen invented the first compound microscope. 

They discovered that putting a lens at the top and bottom of a tube and looking through it magnified objects on the other end. The device laid the groundwork for future breakthroughs, but it was only magnified by 3X to 9X.

Simple Microscope Principle

A simple microscope principle is just a magnifying glass made up of a single convex lens with a short focal length that magnifies an item by angular magnification, resulting in an upright virtual image of the object near the lens. It’s the most basic type of microscopy, with roots extending back to the 14th century.

The lens of a simple microscope is also known as a loupe, and it is commonly used as an eyepiece for various simple magnification devices including compound microscopes, telescopes, and reading glasses.

Simple Microscope Definition

A simple microscope, such as a magnifying glass, employs a single lens for magnification, but a compound microscope uses multiple lenses to magnify an item. It employs a lens to magnify an object solely through angular magnification, resulting in an erect enlarged virtual image for the spectator. It’s a convex lens with a short focal length that’s used to observe magnified images of small objects.

Simple Microscope Magnification

Simple microscope magnification potential of a basic microscope is severely limited because it just has one objective lens. Most basic microscopes have a magnification capacity of only 10x.

M = 1 + D/F, where D is the least distance of distinct vision and F is the focal length of the convex lens, is the formula for estimating the magnifying power of a simple microscope. The higher the magnifying powers of the microscope, the shorter the focal length of the lens.

Simple Microscope Parts

Simple microscope

Simple Microscope Diagram

Simple microscope parts; The pieces of a simple microscope are divided into two main categories;

1. The Mechanical Parts

Metal Stand: It has a sturdy base plate with a vertical rod attached. Other sections of the microscope are supported and stabilised by the metal stand.

Stage: A rectangular metal plate attached to the vertical rod is referred to as a stage. A central hole in the stage allows light to pass through from below. A pair of slanting wings extending from both sides of the stage on some basic microscopes gives support for the hand when moving the item. Place the specimen slide on top of it to observe it.

The base: The base refers to the bottom half of a basic microscope. The microscope is supported by this section.

The Stage: Stage clips are found on the stage of a basic microscope and used to keep specimen slides in place.

Eyepiece: The top of the microscope has a series of lenses that are used to visualise the samples. Its magnification ranges from 10X to 15X.

Tube: A microscope tube is attached to the arm. It could be either monocular or binocular. It connects the objective lenses to the eyepiece.

Nose Piece: The Revolving nose-piece or turret holds the objective lenses and it can rotate during the study of sample.

Fine Adjustment Knob: The fine focusing knob progressively adjusts the distance, allowing you a clearer view of the target. To focus on oil, use the fine adjustment knob.

2. The Optical Parts

The optical parts help in magnification and visualization of specimen. This part is consisting of these following components;

Mirror: It has a Plano-Convex mirror that is attached to the vertical rod by a frame below the stage. The main purpose is to concentrate the surrounding light on the thing under examination.

Lens: Simple microscopes have a biconvex lens mounted above the stage and connected to the vertical rod by a frame. The lens may be adjusted up and down by the frame for appropriate focusing. It enlarges the size of the object, and the resulting enlarged virtual image may be seen by maintaining the eye above it.

Eyepiece: The lens acts as the eyepiece on the earliest simple microscopes, although some newer models have a separate optical lens for seeing the specimen picture. On compound microscopes, eyepieces with their own magnification are employed.

Simple Microscope Working

The ray diagram to show the working of simple microscope is shown in figure. A small object AB which is to be magnified is placed between the principal focus F’ and optical centre C of the convex lens. 

Now, a ray of light AO parallel to principal axis which is coming from the point A of the object passes through the focus F along the straight line OX after getting refracted by the convex lens. 

A second ray of light AC coming from the point A of the object passes through the optical centre C of the convex lens along the straight line CY. As is clear from the figure that the two rays i.e. OX and CY are diverging rays so these rays can intersect each other only at point A’ when produced backward. 

Now, on drawing A’B’ perpendicular from point A’ to the principal axis, we get the image A’B’ of the object which is virtual, erect and magnified.

Simple Microscope Principle and Working

How to Calculate the Magnification of a Microscope

How to calculate the magnification of a microscope, to calculate the compound light microscope’s total magnification, multiply the magnification power of the ocular lens by the power of the objective lens. A 10X ocular and a 40X objective, for example, would result in a total magnification of 400X. A compound light microscope has a maximum total magnification of 1000X.

Simple Microscope Uses

  1. Jewellery designers utilised it in their shops to visualise an enlarged image of minor pieces of the jewellery.
  2. Watchmakers utilised it to magnify a small section of the watch in the business. It is used in agriculture to amplify different particles from various sorts of soils.
  3. To visualise the lines of the hands, palmists utilised rudimentary microscopes.
    A dermatologist or skin specialist utilised it to check for various skin problems in Dermatology.
  4. It was used by a microbiologist in microbiological studies to examine and investigate microscopic fungi, algae, and other biological specimens that are difficult to see with the naked eye.
  5. It was also utilised to visualise stamp and engraving details. It’s also used to inspect the texture of a cloth’s fibres or threads.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

A simple microscope is a magnifying glass with a short focal length and a double convex lens. The hand lens and reading lens are two examples of this type of equipment. When an object is kept close to the lens, the image created by its principal focus is upright and larger than the original thing.

  1. Used to investigate soil.
  2. A dermatologist will use this to study skin diseases.
  3. Hair, blood, skin, nails, sperm, are studied using this technique.
  4. Used to magnify small parts of various objects, such as watch parts, mobiles
  5. Magnification of jewellery is achieved through the use of a magnifying glass.
  6. Used to investigate the microscopic properties of fibres.

A simple microscope, also known as the original light microscope, is a microscope that uses only one lens for magnification. Van Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes were made up of a single small convex lens mounted on a plate, with a mechanism to hold the sample or specimen to be examined.

Further Readings

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