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Structure and Function of Golgi Complex

The Golgi apparatus is also called the Golgi body or the Golgi complex. The name comes from the scientist who first found the organelle, i.e. Camillo Golgi. It is in all eukaryotic cells, including those of plants and animals. They are parts of the cell that are surrounded by a membrane and are found in the cytosol. Let us explore more about structure and function of Golgi complex.

Definition of Golgi Complex

The Golgi apparatus, also called the Golgi body, the Golgi complex, or just “Golgi,” is an organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. It is known as the cell’s manufacturing and shipping centre. Golgi helps put the protein molecules in packages before they are sent to their destination. The cell makes macromolecules like proteins and lipids, and these organelles help process and package them. They are like the “post office” of the cell. Camillo Golgi, an Italian biologist, found out about the Golgi apparatus in the year 1898.

Diagram of Golgi Complex

Structure and function of Golgi complex

Figure 1: Structure and function of Golgi complex

Structure of Golgi Complex

The Golgi Apparatus is a cell organelle that is surrounded by a membrane and is close to the Endoplasmic Reticulum. The Endoplasmic Reticulum is close to the outer membrane of the nucleus. It looks like there are a lot of flat pouches close to each other. This structure, which looks like a flat tube or a pouch, is called a cisternae.

The cisternae of the Golgi apparatus are split into three parts: the cis face, which is near the endoplasmic reticulum, the medial part, which is in the middle of the cisternae, and the trans face (or trans face, which is present near the plasma membrane). In most Golgi Apparatus, there are only six to eight cisternae, but in some single-celled organisms, there can be up to 60 cisternae per Golgi Apparatus.

Structure and function of Golgi complex

Figure 2: Golgi complex in Animal Cells

The two parts Cis Golgi network and Trans Golgi network are the outmost pouches of the cis and trans face respectively. Cis Golgi network and trans Golgi network, both perform a different and important function in the Golgi Apparatus. The network of Cisternae is stabilized in the cell via cytoplasmic microtubules which are the cytoskeleton of a cell.

The Golgi Apparatus is filled with a protein fluid called a matrix. There are a lot of enzymes in the matrix. These enzymes are very important for changing the proteins before they reach the Golgi Apparatus. Each cell of an animal has one or a few Golgi, but each cell of a plant has hundreds of Golgi Apparatus.

Models of Golgi Apparatus

i) Cisternae Maturation Model

Here, it was said that the cisternae mature gradually from cis to trans, which means that each cisterna matures into the next cisterna along with the stack and then breaks up at the trans Golgi network.The vesicles could move in the opposite direction. For example, enzymes that need to be moved back to Endoplasmic Reticulum must be moved from the trans face to the cis face. This is called “Retrograde movement.”

ii) Vescicle Transport Model

Unlike in the Cisternae Maturation Model, it is proposed in this model that the cargo is carried in the forward or anterograde direction by vesicle and that cisternae remain stable, that is, non-dynamic.

Function of Golgi Complex

Its primary function is protein packaging and secretion. It gets proteins from the Endoplasmic Reticulum. It encapsulates it in membrane-bound vesicles, which are then transported to various locations, including lysosomes, the plasma membrane, and secretion. They also help with lipid transport and the formation of lysosomes.

Phosphorylation, glycosylation, and other post-translational modifications and enzymatic processing occur near the membrane surface in Golgi bodies. The Golgi apparatus is where various glycolipids, sphingomyelin, and other proteins are synthesised. The Golgi apparatus in plant cells synthesises complex polysaccharides of the cell wall.

FAQ

FAQs on Structure and Function of Golgi Complex

A group of small, flat sacs made by membranes inside the cytoplasm of a cell (gel-like fluid). The Golgi apparatus gets proteins and lipids (fats) ready to be used elsewhere in the cell or outside of it.

The Golgi complex gets proteins and lipids (fats) ready to be used in other parts of the cell and in other parts of the body. The Golgi complex is a cell organelle. The Golgi apparatus is also known as the Golgi body.

The Golgi apparatus is made up of a series of flattened cisternae and their associated vesicles. Proteins and lipids from the ER enter and exit the Golgi apparatus via the cis face.

Animal cells generally contain between ten and twenty Golgi stacks per cell.

In plant cells, the Golgi apparatus is also responsible for the synthesis of the complex polysaccharides of the cell wall.