Vegetative Propagation Techniques in Forestry

In this vegetative propagation techniques in forestry post we have briefly explained about natural vegetative propagation techniques and artificial vegetative propagation techniques.

Vegetative Propagation Techniques

Vegetative propagation techniques is another mode of asexual reproduction where vegetative part of the organism breaks and gives rise to new organism. Vegetative propagation techniques mode of reproduction is common in higher plants where body parts such as root, stem and leaves takes part into vegetative reproduction. Under natural conditions, plant body parts takes part in vegetative reproduction.

Different types of vegetative propagation techniques include: This occurs when plants grow and develop naturally without any human interference. Natural vegetative propagation can be enabled by the development of adventitious roots. Thus, new plants may emerge from the roots, stem and leaves of the parent plant. This is a type of vegetative reproduction carried out by humans on the fields and laboratories.

Natural Vegetative Propagation Techniques

1. Roots

The modified root planted in soil develop shoot from the bud present on root and adventitious root at the base to give rise new plant. Ex. Sweet potatoes, Tapioca, Yam, Dahila and Tinospora.

Different examples of vegetative reproducing by roots

2. Stems

Underground modified stems grow into new plants and help in vegetative reproduction. There are different variants stems, these are as follows:

Suckers: These are shoot grow horizontally in soil and they come out to form new arial shoots. Once it is break from the parent plant, it grows as independent plant. Ex. Mint, Chrysanthemum.

Rhizomes: These are modified stems with stored material to withstand adverse conditions. Once they are getting favourable condition, they give rise to shoot and root at the base. Ex. Typha, Canna, Ginger, Turmeric, Lotus etc. 

Corms: These are highly condensed and specialized stem with many buds. They can be able to withstand unfavourable conditions. Ex. Banana, Crocus, Gladiolus etc.

Bulbs: Bulbs are food storage units for future developing plants. Bulbs contain several buds near the node, which is where leaves are produced. This gives new plant when sown in soil. Ex. Onion, garlic, Lilies etc.

Tubers: These are underground modified stems with several buds. For ex. Potato has several eyes which grow into new plant when planted with a portion of the swollen tuber. It is a common mode of propogation in the case of potato.

Vegetative Propagation

Different examples of vegetative reproducing by shoots

3. Creeping Stems

These are stems runs along the soil and give rise to new plants. It has three major different variants:

Runners: These are creepers which produces adventious root at each nodes. Each node give rise to aerial shoot which becomes a new plant. Ex. Cynodon, Oxalis, Centella etc.

Stolons: These are arched runner which cross over small obstacles and develop small plantlets at their nodes. Ex. Fragaria, Vallisneria etc.

Offsets: It is a short runner with one internode long. It originates from leaf axil, grows as a short horizontal branch. It produces a rosette of leaves above and adventitious roots below. Offsets art generally found in aquatic plants like Pistia (water lettuce), Eichomia (water hyacinth), Houseleek etc. Ex. Pistia.

4. Aerial Stems

Aerial stem modifications are modifications to the aerial stems, vegetative buds and floral buds of plants. The aerial stems develops new plant when they break and segment fall on the soil. Ex. Cactus.

5. Leaves

Some plant develop adventitious buds on their leaves and these leaves buds off and give rise to new plants. For ex. Bryophyllum, develops several small planets with root on the margin of leaves. In few cases, develops bud when get injured and placed on the moist soil. Ex. Kalanchoe, Begonia, Streptocarpus etc. 

Vegetative Propagation

Vegetative reproducing by leaves

6. Bulbils

These are fleshy buds produced in the axil of the foliage leaves instead of axillary buds. They have ability to grow and give new plant when shed off and fall on ground. Ex. Oxalis, Allium sativum, Dioscorea, Lily, Pineapple. In few plants, flower bud develops into bulbils which give rise to new plant when shed from the parent plant.

Vegetative Propagation

Different examples of vegetative reproducing by bulbils

7. Turions

These are fleshy buds develop in aquatic plants for vegetative propagations. Ex. Potamogeton, Utricularia etc.

Artificial Vegetative Propagation Techniques

Humans use this method of vegetative propagation techniques in the fields and laboratories. The following are the most common types of vegetative propagation techniques that occur artificially:

1. Cutting

In this cutting vegetative propagation techniques, A portion of a plant, such as a stem or leaf, is cut and planted in the soil in this method. Hormones are sometimes used to encourage root growth in these cuttings. The adventitious roots that sprout from the cutting produce the new plant.

2. Grafting

In this grafting vegetative propagation techniques, the cutting from some other plant is attached to the stem of plant rooted in the ground. The tissues of the graft become integrated with the tissues of the rooted plant and develop as a single plant over time.

3. Layering

The plant’s stem is bent to the ground and covered with earth in this method. Adventitious roots sprout from the soil-covered plant components. A layer is the term for the associated stem with developing roots.

4. Tissue Culture

Plant cells from various areas of a plant are cultivated in the lab to create a new plant in this method. This vegetative propagation techniques aids in the expansion of rare and endangered plant species that are unable to thrive in natural environments.

Further Readings