Uses and Overutilization of Water Resources

Uses and overutilization of water resources post we have briefly explained about water uses by humans, sustainable use of water resources in major sectors, and water resources.

What is Nature Water Resources?

Water withdrawal that is, using ground water or surface water. With the rapid growth of population, many countries are now using desalinated sea water as a potential source of supply of potable water in scarcity hit regions.

Desalination may be accomplished by processes such as distillation, freezing, electro-dialysis and reverse osmosis. Water consumption that is, water which is taken up but not returned for reuse. Globally, only 60% of the water withdrawn is consumed due to loss through evaporation and without following sustainable use of water resources.

Water Utilization in Major Sectors

Irrigation Uses: Agriculture sector is the major consumer (93%) of water in India but most of the farmers are not following any sustainable use of water resources. While in a country like Kuwait, which is water poor, only 4% is used for watering the crops. On a global average, 70% of water withdrawn is used for irrigation.

Industries Uses: About 25% of water on global average is used in industry which again varies from 70% in European countries to 5% in less developed countries.

Power generation: In India, power generation sector requires about 15 times more water by 2012 than it was in 1974 even using sustainable use of water resources.

Domestic needs: Per capita consumption of water shows wide variations. In USA, an average family of 4 consumes more than 1000 m3 of water per year which is many times more than that in most developing countries. With growing population, the demand for good quality fresh water is steadily increasing but its availability is dwindling because of misuse, wastage and pollution.

Overutilization of Water Resources

Water, a vital natural resource and precious commodity, is essential for multiple purposes with sustainable use of water resources. Human beings depend on water for almost every developmental activity.

Out of 30% stream flow, water consumed by man is 8% for irrigation, 2% for domestic use, 4% for industrial sustainable use of water resources, 12% for electrical utilities, 4% for transportation and waste disposal. Water shapes the earth’s surface and regulates our climate.

Water Uses

Consequences of over utilization of water resources

Water table: Excessive use of ground water for drinking, irrigation and domestic purposes has resulted in rapid depletion of ground water table leading to drying of wells and sharp decline in future agricultural production. sustainable use of water resources in agriculture should be followed everyone to avoid this conditions.

Ground subsidence: When ground water withdrawal is more than its recharge rate, the sediments in the aquifers become compact causing ground subsidence. It results in sinking of overlying land surface which may damage buildings, because fractures in pipes, reverse the flow of sewers and canals and tidal flooding.

Water logging: Excessive irrigation with brackish water raises the water table leading to water logging and salinity problems sustainable use of water resources can stops salt water logging.

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