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What Is Immunology and Its Types

    In this what is immunology and its types post we have briefly explained about what is immunology?, immune system, types of immunity, antibodies and antigens, immune cells, immune response, and FAQ on what is immunology?.

    What is immunology?

    An immune system is the body’s ability to recognise and respond to foreign substances. An immunologist is a scientist who studies the human immune system and the compounds, cells, and organs that contribute to it.

    what is immunology

    What is immunology?

    What is Immunity

    Infection resistance is a condition in which one is able to resist a specific disease, particularly by preventing the development of pathogenic microorganisms or by combating the effects of their products.

    1. Innate immunity: Innate immunity is something that is already present in the body and is not specific to any one infection. Our first line of defence against intruders is innate immunity.
    2. Adaptive immunity: Adaptive immunity is a type of immunity that develops in response to exposure to a foreign substance or a specific substance. The lymphocytes, which are immune cells, are responsible for mediating the adaptive immune response.

    Immune System

    Infection-fighting cells and organs form a network that works together to protect the body from infectious organisms. The human body is susceptible to infection by a wide range of organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, all of which are capable of causing disease when they enter. It is the immune system’s responsibility to identify these agents as foreign and eliminate them.

    Antibodies and Antigens

    Antibodies, also known as Y-shaped immunoglobulin’s, are proteins found in the blood that assist in the defence of the body against foreign substances known as antigens. Antibodies are found in the bloodstream to help the body fight against antigens. 

    An antigen is a substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides. There are five different antibody types, each of which has a unique Y-shaped configuration and function, as described above. The antibodies in human body are the Ig G, A, M, D, and E antibodies.

    What Is Immunology

    Figure.1: Immunoglobulin isotypes. The five immunoglobulin classes or isotypes in mammals are shown graphically.

    Immune cells

    B-Cells: B lymphocytes, which create antibodies, develop and mature in the bone marrow. Thus, the term “B lymphocytes” now refers to lymphocytes generated from bone marrow.

    T-Cells: T lymphocytes are thymus-derived lymphocytes that arise in the bone marrow and migrate to and mature in the thymus; T lymphocytes are thymus-derived lymphocytes.

    Immune Response

    Hypersensitivity: However, the immune response can be the source of disease in some cases, either as an unwanted side effect of an immune response aimed against an external antigen or as a result of an autoimmune reaction. Hypersensitivity is an abnormal state of immunological reactivity that has negative consequences for the host.

    Autoimmunity: When the immune system fails to “tolerate” own antigens, pathogenic processes known as autoimmune disorders can arise. Autoimmunity appears to be implicated in a range of seemingly unrelated disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (IDDM), myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and hemolytic anaemia, at the clinical level.

    FAQ on what is immunology

    Immunology is a discipline of medical and biological research that studies the immune system.

    Immunity refers to your body’s ability to recognise pathogens and prevent sickness.

    The acquired immune system

    Further Readings

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