In this What makes DNA negatively charged? post we have briefly explained about why DNA have negative charge. Read on to learn more about What makes DNA negatively charged?
What is DNA?
DNA is an acronym for Deoxyribonucleic Acid, which has a unique molecular structure. This is found in the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. DNA is a collection of molecules that facilitate the passage of genetic material from parents to offspring. This also applies to viruses. Certain viruses include only RNA as their genetic material, while others contain DNA.
DNA is not merely a carrier of genetic information. Additionally, it is responsible for protein synthesis in living organisms. Nuclear DNA is the DNA housed within the nucleus of all organisms. This is responsible for the majority of an organism’s genomes, while plastid and mitochondrial DNA are responsible for the rest.
Mitochondrial DNA is the DNA that is kept within the mitochondria of a cell. This is something that the child inherits from their mother. The human body contains roughly 16,000 mitochondrial DNA pairs.
What makes DNA negatively charged?
What makes DNA negatively charged? The presence of phosphate groups in nucleotides causes DNA to be negatively charged.
The phosphate backbone is negative because the bonds formed between oxygen and phosphorus atoms are negative. The phosphate group contains only one negative oxygen atom in the entire DNA structure. However, this turns the entire structure into a negative.
The four chemical bases that make up DNA’s coding sequence are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Around 3 billion bases make up human DNA, with approximately 99 percent of those bases being similar in all humans. The arrangement, or sequence, of these bases impacts the information available for forming and maintaining an organism.
A base joins a T base, and a C base links a G base to make a base pair. A sugar and phosphate molecule connect each base. The three components of a nucleotide are the bases, sugars, and phosphates. Nucleotides are spiralled into a double helix, which is made up of two long strands. In a double helix, the base pairs form the rungs, while the sugar and phosphate molecules serve as the ladder’s vertical side pieces.
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